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Full text of "The pleasures, objects, and advantages of cycling : with numerous illustrations"

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CAUTION 

Do not write in this book or mark it with 
pen or pencil. Penalties are imposed by the 
Revised Laws of the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts, Chapter 208, Section 83. 



MAR -8 II 



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The Inventions of the fige for all Gycles. 



W. BOWN'S 

NEW "PERFECT" PROCESS 

— For Fixing gutter Tyr?5 Io I(im5 & 



AND NEW 



Patent "Inflexible" Hollow Rim, 

Lighter and stronger than any yet made. 



This process absolutely secures the Tyre, so that it cannot 
possibly be moved without tearing. 

APPLICABLE TO ALL EIMS ALREADY IN USE. 

It will be seen in the above sketch the great saving of weight in rubber, the Tyre being reduced 

to nearly half size. 



bOOK OfelT P0R TRE "FAOILITATER" LAMP 

And other Novelties at the Annual Exhibition. 



-%W. BOWN^ 

308, |ummer Lane, Birmingham. 



A D VERTISEMENTS 



Trig'vjeil, T/lfatson* Co. 



— MAKERS OF THE 



BICYCLES 



FITTED WITH OUR PATENT 



TOENT 

Ball Bearing Head 

/<ff3L ROADSTERS , 

J|: J^^ft Tke successes RACERS ^ 

1^35 5$^J1 attended each of these ^ — ———, _ - 

^^^MlSi^^^rM^ machines in nearly every Or\ 1 tL 1 1 tl£). 

^^^/^/'lllmw^^^^!^^ com P e tition in which they 
^^LUll^^^-- -■ - N^> i Cfrfr -'-T ^ ay ^ ^ ; * ridden make further comment unneces- 

" ^ sary. 



THE REGENT ROADSTER. 



-'GOLD MEDAL* 

AWARDED INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, LIVERPOOL, 1886. 



WORKS & OFFICES: 



BRIXTON HILL, LONDON. s.w. 



t 



ADVERTISEMEMENTS. 



OLYMPI A ! 
OLYMPI A ! 
OLYMPI A ! 

The only Monthly Magazine which devotes attention to Cycling. 
All the leading Cycling Writers contribute to it. 





SIXPENCE EVERY MONTH, or post free 7y£d. 



ILIFFE & SON, 98, FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.C. 



ill I 



Office of "THE CYCLIST," "BICYCLING NEWS," 
^"OLYMPIA," "VOLUNTEER YEAR BOOK," &c.m 



ILIFFE & SON, 
Printers & Publishers, 

98, Fleet St., London, e.c. 

Works: COVENTRY. 



(9 ' £ 

TERMS AND ESTIMATES ON APPLICATION. 






ADVERTISEMENTS. 



GEORGE TOWNEND, 

THE ORIGINAL AND SPECIAL MAKER OF 

JtiVENILE Yrigygles 

WELLINGTON TRICYCLE WORKS, 

Lower Ford (Street, CoYentry. 



SUITABLE 



FOE 








SUITABLE 



FOR 







Tlje " Welliijgtog Jhrrier," Cripper-type. 
PRICE from £3 10s. 



^ 
t & 





















<$\a<? 



T> ^ 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



MESSRS. 



Lf AMPLUGH & B ROWN 

Beg to announce to the cycling public that the pleasures of cycling 

depend entirely upon the Saddle, therefore they unhesitatingly 

recommend to all admirers of the wheel 

<l¥HE GELEBRATED BUFFER SADDLED* 



TRIPLE TENSION BUFFER SADOLE 



PRICE 12/-. 




PRICE 12/-. 



SOLE MAKERS 

IAMFLUCH& BROWN 
BIRMH 



<16UR 1 ANDLE-BAR Ll UGGAGE C ARRIER S 

Will be found one of the greatest boons to cyclists when Touring. 



24in. Straps, 

7/2. 




24dn. Straps, 
7/2. 



IMPORTANT. — When ordering, please state diameter of handle-bar. 



WORKS : 



61 gOLMORE SL, B IRMINGHAM . 






ADVERTISEMENTS. 



-THE- 



COVENTRY CYCLE Co., 




LIMITED, 



COVENTRY 



MAKERS OF 




devefiUpj Imperial 

BICYCLES, 
TRICYCLES, 



SAFETIES , * 
TANDEMS. 



PATRONISED BY ROYALTY 

>-»-« 

ALL GUARANTEED MACHINES BEAR THE REGISTERED TRADE MARK OF THE COMPANY. 

>-*-* 




HEAD OFFICE AND WORKS: 

■*WHITEFRIARS' LANE, COVENTRY-!* 

BRANCH DEPOT: 

16, GAETSIDE STEEET, MANCHESTEE. 



f 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 





Zo the Cycling ffbublic. 



AMONG many other 

Novelties which will 

be introduced by me in 

the coming season will be 

a New Combination 

Bell, constructed on entirely novel lines. 
A New Oilcan, very simple and effec- 
tive, which will abolish that bete noiv of 
the cyclist — leakage. Also a Non- 

vibrating Lamp Bracket, possess- 
ing that hitherto unobtainable desidera- 
tum (in non-vibrating brackets), viz., 
a parallel motion. 

The Patent Continuous Chime 

Bell (whose sale this year has tremen- 
dously exceeded that of any previous 
one) has been further greatly improved, 
and still is, as it always has been, the 
only perfect cyclist's alarm. 

My Unequalled Bearing Balls 

have upheld their well-merited reputa- 
tion, and may still be implicitly relied 
on for hardness, toughness and accuracy. 





J. HARRISON, 

M Kensington Works, Birmingham,'* 

Patentee and Manufacturer of all kinds of Cycling Accessories. 

BELLS, LAMPS, SPANNERS, SPOKE-GRIPS, OILCANS, 
WHISTLES, SADDLES, YALISES, LUBRICATORS, 

LOCKS AND CHAINS, 

And nearly every Requisite and Accessory in connection with Cycling, 



A D \ 'ER tlSEM ENfS . 



\p " JJuadparat." 





BRi\DLEY E:F.hi¥ 



This machine, though only before the public or the last two years, has revolution- 
ised the style of tricycles. It is much imitated, but as its vital principles are 
protected by patent rights, it continues still 

THE FINEST ROADSTER IN THE WORLD. 



MAKERS J 



SRHE Q UADRANT HZ RICYCLE CQ., 

SHEEPCOTE STREET, BIRMINGHAM. 



A D VERTISEMENTS 



11 



TRC TAGIhE 



SAFETY * BICYCLE 



(Beale and Straw's Patent.) 






.f%& 




*^ 






BEST ROADSTER 

tf AJ^j4fkKA READILY 

ED 

HOUR 

PROVED BY SEVEN 
YEARS HARD USE 

SEND FDR ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST 



"if WUffKi* * N Km 



>^i* 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 



EI2L2IS & GO., LiTD. 

47, FARRINGDON ROAD, 

—LONDON, RC— 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



IMPORTANT FACTS. 



READERS AND ADVERTISERS PLEASE NOTE. 



The • Gygliist 

AND BICYCLING & TRICYCLING TRADES REVIEW, 

THE ONLY TRADE PAPER, 

CYCLING PAPER 



THE LARGEST, 

THE CHEAPEST, 

THE MOST ACCURATE, 



IN THE 



™ E M 1Z R est ABLE ' I WORLD. 



HAS 



The Largest Bona Fide Circulation, 

THE ABLEST AND MOST PRACTICAL STAFF, 

Its own Special Correspondents all over the World, a Reputation Second to None, 

— AND CONTAINS- 

TKe E&rlie5l, FuIIe}! f L^I Kepor^ 

OF ALL CYCLING DOINGS OF IMPORTANCE. 

Every Item of Interest, Illustrated Descriptive Articles on all Novelties and New Machines, Mcst 
Complete Reports of Cycle Racing from its own Correspondents ; in fact, nothing is missed, ai}d 

witrjal it costs but 

ONE PENNY, EVERY WEDNESDAY. 

Annual Subscription, post free, 6/6. It is obtainable of all Booksellers, Newsagents, and Cycle 

Depots, or direct from the Publishers, 

ILIFFE & EON, 98, FLEET STREET, LONDON ; AND COVENTRY. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




!NAP! 








!NAP! 




THE SECRET OUT. 



*** On no account play Cards again until you have read what the "Globe," the " Whitehall 
Review," the " Sportsman," and a hundred other influential papers, declare to be the MOST 
EXTRAORDINARY book on Cards ever published. We strongly advise you to either buy 



HOW 



TO 



or send for 



WIN 



AT 



NAP. 



First ask at a bookstall or bookseller's for it. If they have not got it, tell them to get it ; but if 

wanted urgently, send 1/2 in stamps for it to 

1LIFFE & SON, 98, FLEET STREET. EG. 

"HOW TO WIN AT NAP" (1/-J is profusely Illustrated. 



THE 



PLEASURES, OBJECTS, 



AND 



ADVANTAGES 



OF 



GYGhlNG. 



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LONDON : 
ILIFFE & SON, 98, FLEET STREET, E.C 

Simpkin, Marshall & Co Hamilton, Adams & Co. 



1S87. 



\ 7-i 



jl< 



London : 
Iliffe and Son, 9S, Fleet Street. 

Works : Coventry. 






CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. Radically Philosophical : Why Cycling Captivates 

II. The History of Cycles and Cycling 

., III. My Experiences of Safety Bicycling ... 

,, IV. The Utilitarian Aspect of Cycling 

V. Cycling as a Pastime 

VI. Cycle Racing 

VII. Curiosities of Cycling 

VIII. A Charming Tandem Spin 

., IX. The Literature of Cycling 



PAGE 

7 
ii 

22 

43 

5* 

6i 

70 
75 
S7 



FULL-PAGE PLATES. 



A Club Picnic 
What the Eye don't see 
Chacun a Son Gout... 
Facilis Descensus 
Racing — Road and Path 
Trick Riding 
Rustic Rivals... 
Nap on Wheels ... 



Frontispiece. 
Facing bage 43 

51 
56 
61 
70 
75 
*7 



PREFACE. 



y^HIS book is designed to set forth the pleasures, objects, 
and advantages of bicycle and tricycle riding in such 
guise as to persuade the non-rider to become a cyclist. With- 
out indulgence in hysterical exaggeration, the author has 
presented an outline of the various phases of cycling in a 
manner calculated to provide just what the cyclist so often 
feels the need of when talking of his favourite pursuit to 
such vacillating and uncertain individuals as he may desire 
to convert to the pleasures of the wheel. A perusal of these 
pages will afford the cycling novice an insight to the sport 
and pastime which could only be obtained, without it, by a 
long course of reading and personal experience in the ways 
oj the wheel world. 




A CLUB PICNIC 







THE HALF-WAY HOUSE. 



CHAPTER I. 



RADICALLY PHILOSOPHICAL: WHY. CYCLING CAPTIVATES. 

13 API D locomotion possesses an extraordinary power of 
-^^ exciting pleasurable feelings in the human breast. In 
infancy the locomotion of the go-cart, the wooden horse on 
wheels, the merry-go-round, or even the swinging gate, pro- 
duces a degree of pleasure in the child-mind which is, later 
on, equalled only by the more ambitious ride in a cart, or on 
horseback, or in a railway train ; the degree of pleasure being 
commensurate with the novelty of the means whereby loco- 
motion is enjoyed. To combine with the locomotion a certain 
amount of extraneous amusement creates a more lasting affec- 
tion for it ; thus we see the schoolboy run with his hoop, day 
after day, gaining pleasure not merely from activity in running, 
but also from the skill exercised in trundling, balancing, and 
guiding the hoop. As he gets older, the boy relinquishes the 
hoop as being too insipid, and takes to other locomotive sports, 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

such as cricket, football, skating, horse-riding and driving, 
boating, and so forth, all of which are in greater or less 
degree pastimes of restricted periods and localities ; and it 
is only upon taking to cycling that the adult discovers a 
locomotive recreation capable of limitless extension for novelty, 
restricted to no season, and which can be pursued in any 
locality. Skating is the pastime which most nearly approxi- 
mates to cycling ; but skating is very restricted both as to 
period and locality. The skater, at commencing cycling, enjoys 
exactly the same pleasurable feeling of rapid locomotion and 
novel exercise as before, and the same emotions of delight 
at his growing skill in balancing and guiding. But, whereas 
on skates he was restricted to a level path, and a cold season, 
on wheels he can travel the highways and byeways of the land 
in every direction, at all seasons of the year, gaining inimitably 
fresh experiences. After awhile he finds that the mere sensa- 
tions of exercise, locomotion, and skill when cycling fall into a 
position subordinate to the concomitant pleasures derived from 
using the cycle as a means whereby he may travel from place 
to place, although the ever-changing scenes he passes through 
have the power to so exhilarate the rider's spirits that he can, 
when in familiar and oft-ridden paths, still derive exquisite 
enjoyment from the mere amusement of riding. In this lies 
the secret of the phenomenal progress of cycling amongst the 
middle and upper classes. It is not only an amusement, nor 
only an exercise, such as cricket, lawn-tennis, skating, and 
similar pastimes are ; but it is a means whereby the townsman 
may start from his own door, rapidly and pleasantly traverse 
rural spots, and gain perpetually new impressions of the beauties 
of Nature in a manner impossible by any other means ; a 



WHY CYCLING CAPTIVATES. 

pastime which enables him to combine constitutional recreation 
in the fresh air with visits to adjacent or distant spots, be- 
loved by reason of their natural, historical, architectural, social, 
or other associations ; free from wearisome drawbacks such as 
are inseparable from all other methods of locomotion, because 
combining the amusement of riding with the object of the 
journey. 

If we take up a periodical devoted to outdoor pastimes — 
such, for instance, as "Outing" magazine — we shall find that of 
all the forms of locomotive recreation, cycling occupies the 
unique position of an amusement with secondary attractions 
superior to any other. Beyond the athleticism common to 
all, we find that the votaries of cricket and kindred games 
have nothing but the exercise of competitive skill to amuse 
them ; skating and boating provide only for locomotion over 
restricted areas, the surface of a river or lake being so mono- 
tonously level as to allow aquatic travellers to enjoy but little 
variation in the scenery ; and although yachting may be made 
to approximate somewhat to cycling by reason of the facilities 
which it offers for a certain amount of exertion combined with 
visits to various seaports, yet the sight of the blue water 
cannot compare with that of the verdant hills, dales, hedge- 
rows, and woods, in the infinitely-changing varieties visible 
in a journey along an undulating highway. The cyclist can 
enjoy the excitement of competition, in common with the 
cricketer ; he can ride by the riverside when desiring to 
gaze upon riparian scenery, with the advantage over the 
boating-man of being able to view the winding waters from 
above as well as from the level, and from enchanting distance 
as well as (sometimes) disenchanting proximity ; and the towns 



to THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

visited by the cyclist, corresponding to the monotonous sea- 
ports called at by the yachtsman, form but a small part of 
the variety of villages, hamlets, and queer nooks continually 
passed through when on the highways. In every way, cycling 
provides its votaries with a greater variety of attractions than 
any other pastime ; and as a pastime alone it flourishes abun- 
dantly. Beyond the mere pastime, it possesses claims to 
consideration on the score of hygienic and economic utility, 
and even as an aid to commercial enterprise the treadled wheel 
is assuming a position of no little importance ; and it is so 
highly to be desired that the truth shall be widely known that 
I have, in the following pages, endeavoured to preach the 
Gospel of Cycling in all its phases, that all who read may j 
gain an insight into the capabilities of what is still regarded, 
by many, as a mere childish amusement. 

I w r as asked, a short time ago, what good cycling does me ; 
and my reply was that cycling has saved my life. It was a 
truthful answer ; for my friends know, as I do, that before I 
took to cycling I was marked down as a hopelessly delicate 
candidate for an early grave. Ten years, with cycling only 
as a pastime, have made me one of the healthiest and hardiest 
men in London. This is why I spread the Gospel of Cycling. 




"Ok Yiiyla. HWV -^^rrctC *&A* 



CHAPTER II. 



THE HISTORY OF CYCLES AND CYCLING. 



^THE earliest record of cycling, as an amusement, dates 
-*• from the commencement of the present century, when 
men of quality and fashion took to riding " hobby horses " 
consisting of two wheels connected by vertical forks and 
horizontal bars, the front wheel fork being pivoted so as to 
steer by means of a handle-bar, and the rider propelling 
himself by sitting on the bar and kicking at the ground with 
his feet. Ridicule soon killed hobby-horse riding, and it was not 
until 1867 that cycling can be said to have fairly commenced 
as a pastime. France, England, and America share the 
honours of adopting the " velocipedes " which grew up out of 
the first crude bicycle made with equal sized wooden wheels, 
iron tyred, propelled by pedal cranks on the front wheel ; but 
England has acquired a position of pre-eminence by virtue of 
improving upon the first patterns to an extent not approached 



12 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

in any other country. Modern cycling is, in fact, essentially 
an English pastime, France and America having done nothing 
to improve the " breed " of cycles, and Frenchmen having 
created a sort of impression in their country that cycling is a 
species of circus-riding feat alone ; whilst America first killed 
the pastime in its wooden-wheeled stage, and later on adopted 
English customs and copied English patterns when English- 
men had brought cycling to a position of practical success. 

It has been truly said, that if bicycles had been invented 
before railways, they would have been invaluable ; but so 
would the electric light have been invaluable had it been 
invented before gas-lighting ; and so, too, would the eighty- 
ton gun have been invaluable if it had been invented in the old 
days of chivalry. But all such modern inventions have taken 
time to gradually evolve themselves. The eighty-ton gun could 
never have been made until tools and materials had been 
gradually improved; the electric light, even had electricity itself 
been discovered many centuries earlier, could not have been 
perfected until human skill in the mechanical arts had made it 
possible to construct the requisite apparatus ; and in like man- 
ner the modern bicycle — if it had been invented in its 1868 
form a century earlier — would have remained in very much 
the same crude and imperfect state, until the march of improve- 
ment had given workmen the lathes, and the tube-making 
machines, and all the other complicated tools which are essen- 
tial to construct the light and durable cycles of to-day. The 
rapidity with which the bicycle and the tricycle have attained 
to their present pitch of perfection is, indeed, a noteworthy 
example of the progress which has taken place, within a decade, 
in the engineering skill of British and American workmen. I 



HISTORY OF CYCLES AND CYCLING. 13 

say " and American " because the American engineer has 
undoubtedly a claim to a very large share of the credit due 
to those whose ingenuity has brought tool-making to its present 
high standard, even though the Americans were backward in 
taking to the task of cycle improvement. 

The progress of cycling, as a pastime, has been so inti- 
mately connected with, and dependent upon, the improvement 
of the cycle, that the histories of the two cannot be divided. 
As the construction has improved, so has the use of cycles 
extended ; until it is estimated that there are now 500,000 
cycles in use in the United Kingdom, 20,000 in America, and 
an unknown quantity all over the face of the earth. 

Looking back to 1868-9, wdien "velocipedes" — as wooden- 
wheeled bicycles were then termed — first became familiar in 
the streets of London, it is not difficult to understand why a 
prejudice arose against cycling, inasmuch as the average cyclist 
of those days was of the class generally termed " hobblede- 
hoys " ; labouring men, costermongers, and schoolboys being 
the chief supporters of the enterprising people who let out on 
hire the heavy and rattling arrangements of wood and solid iron 
upon which the callow aspirant to cycling skill was wont to 
disport himself on Sunday mornings. A few people of a better 
class were certainly taken by the "velocipede" mania; but 
these were seldom seen by the general public, and thus it was 
that cycling prejudice first arose — a prejudice which has not 
yet been entirely eradicated — and the cyclist was typically 
regarded as " a cad on castors." 

It required, indeed, a very large amount of enthusiasm and 
perseverance to make a man, who was at all fond of comfort, 
ride the wooden bicycle. Long afterwards, riders themselves 



14 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



came to speak of the byegone pattern as a " boneshaker," and 
so exceedingly apposite was this term that nowadays it has lost 
the sound of a humorous nickname, and the "velocipede" of the 
era about 1870 is now invariably spoken of as a " boneshaker." 
With wooden wheels, iron tyres, solid iron forks and backbones, 
primitive pedals, short handle-bar, plain gun-metal bearings, 
and uncomfortable saddle, the boneshaker yet had its enthusi- 




*~ 



astic votaries ; and it may be taken as proof of the machine 
possessing the germs of a successful future that these few 
enthusiasts were encouraged to improve the details and gradu- 
ally make the boneshaker less uncomfortable, more speedy, and 
more durable. Even as late as 1874, the "boneshaker" type of 
bicycle was prevalent, although some inventors had discarded 
wooden wheels altogether and enlarged the front wheel con- 



HISTORY OF CYCLES AND CYCLING. 



*5 



siderably, so that fifty-inch bicycles were beginning to appear 
in public. Even on the boneshaker, nevertheless, cycling as a 
recreation made considerable headway ; and first with iron tyres, 
next with gutta-percha nailed on to the wooden felloes, and 
lastly with india-rubber tyres in V shaped iron felloes, the 
bicycle was used as a means of touring in the country. By 




1876, the manufacture of bicycles without wooden wheels — all 
the parts save the saddle-block and the brake-cord being of 
metal — had become a recognised trade, and the Coventry 
Machinists' Company, Limited, proudly published the annexed 
design of what was then regarded as a perfect bicycle. 

By this period — 1876 — bicycling had taken a firm hold upon 
the youth of the British Isles, as was evidenced by there being 



V 



16 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

sixty bicycle clubs established, eleven of which were in the 
Metropolitan district, thirty-nine in provincial towns, nine in 
Ireland, and one in Scotland. The object of these clubs was 
not — as might be inferred — to purchase or hire bicycles on easy 
terms, but to provide organisations whereby riders who pos- 
sessed bicycles could meet and take journeys into the country 
together, the Saturday afternoon half-holiday being the usual 
occasion upon which " club runs" were carried out. This 
system, so early inaugurated, has since developed enormously, 
until at the present time there is scarcely a village in England 
without its bicycle club, while the larger towns swarm with such 
associations, London alone possessing some two hundred 
clubs ; and America, France, Germany, and other countries 
have likewise vast numbers of clubs devoted to the same and 
kindred objects. 

The progress of bicycle making in the decade since 1876 
has been one of mechanical detail ; and our manufacturing 
firms at Coventry and elsewhere have left no stone unturned to 
bring the machine to a point of perfection. The Patent Offices 
of England and America teem with applications for monopolies 
in inventions of what were supposed to be improvements ; but 
although some few patentees have made a commercial success 
out of their inventions, there is, at the present day, only one 
patent governing the bicycle ; that is to say, a perfect bicycle 
can be made in England by anybody without paying royalty pn 
any part except the adjustable ball bearings, patented by Bown, 
and now adopted in more or less modified forms by almost 
every maker. Looking at the illustration, depicting the bicycle 
of 1876, we see that the only parts of the machine which are not 
radically altered now are the spoke-heads and the rubber tyre. 



ii 







HISTORY OF CYCLES AND CYCLING. 17 

The V felloes of the wheel are replaced by felloes of U section, 
either solid or hollow ; the spokes, which were nippled and lock- 
nutted into the hubs, are now either screwed direct or laced 
through holes in the hubs and screwed at the rims ; the hubs 
themselves are radically altered both in shape and material ; 
the cranks are still made with slotted ends wherein the pedals 
may be adjusted to vary the stroke ; the forks and backbone, 
which were then solid bars, are now of weldless steel tube ; the 
socket-head has given place to the Stanley type ; the cumbrous 
spring is reduced in size (and, frequently, for the worse as far 
as comfort is concerned, most bicycle makers entertaining a 
rooted prejudice against comfortable springs) ; the handle-bar 
is increased from twenty to about thirty inches in length, and 
the ends are dropped to a comfortable position ; the brake is 
removed from the small to the large wheel ; the saddle is now a 
piece of solid, pliable leather suspended on a skeleton frame, 
instead of an iron plate covered with leather presenting an un- 
yielding edge ; the pedals are made with two india-rubber bars, 
giving a broad foothold, instead of one solid brass bar ; and — 
most important of all — the bearings in which the wheels and 
pedals turn are fitted with ball bearings, whereby the friction 
which was evolved by the old plain bearings is practically nulli- 
fied, and every microscopical point of wear can be accurately 
taken up, so that there is no chance for the machine to display 
r ^article of rattling propensity. The modern bicycle is, prac- 
t ally, perfect ; nothing in the world exists which can make it 
lighter, or stronger for the weight, or faster ; and the only way 
in which one bicycle is better than another is in the quality oi 
the materials used, and the perfection of skill in manipulating 
them on the part of the workmen. The driving wheel is made 



i8 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



as large as will enable its rider to reach the pedals when he is 
seated above it, and the trailing-wheel is made as small as 
experience has shown to give the best results. 





THE ROADSTER BICYCLE OF lS86. 



MODERN BICYCLE — FRONT VIEW. 



Tricycles are the results of the desire to make a velocipede 
which shall possess some of the advantages of the bicycle, 
without the attendant disadvantages, and also enable ladies 
to cycle without disarrangement of their ordinary costume. 
The latter must, indeed, be regarded as the primary motive 
for the invention of tricycles, as there are prints extant showing 
that three-wheeled velocipedes of a very rude construction were 
made so long ago as in 1820, under the title of " ladies' 



HISTORY OF CYCLES AND CYCLING. 



19 



hobby-horses " ; and the first of the modern tricycles was 
available for ladies' use as well as that of gentlemen. Leaving 
out altogether such crudities as the wooden go-carts, propelled 
by foot levers, of which specimens may occasionally be met 
with to this day, the first modern tricycle was brought out 
in 1877, called "The Coventry," and was worked by up and 
down lever motion. In its improved form, this is now known 
as "The Rotary," and retains its original configuration, having 




one large wheel on the left side and two small wheels, in a 
line, on the right side, both the latter wheels turning to steer, 
and the former wheel only being connected to the driving 
pedals. Of front-steering tricycles, the earliest was sold in 
London about 1876, and was designed expressly for ladies' 
use, the annexed cut being reproduced from a photograph of 
hat year. 

Both these tricycles were on the reciprocating lever prin- 



\ 



20 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

ciple, and for many years a small minority of riders preferred 
that motion to the more popular and graceful rotary action ; 
even to the present day there are cyclists — perhaps one in 
every thousand — who prefer an up-and-down motion of the feet 
to the rotary action which has become almost universal. The 
11 Salvo" initiated the system of rotary driving by means of a 
cranked shaft for the pedals, parallel to the driving axle, with 
a chain to connect the two ; and since that tricycle was 
brought out, almost every conceivable combination of three 
wheels has been devised, and the proportionate sizes of wheels, 
the shapes of frames, and the position of riders, have been 
altered and shifted in endless ways ; but with bicycle building 
and bicycle riding experience to guide them, the makers have 
gradually mastered the principles of construction to such an ex- 
tent that the tricycle is now very little slower than the bicycle on 
either road or race-track. Tube frames and ball bearings have 
been adapted from the bicycle, and the possibilities of making 
a small driving wheel revolve faster than the pedal cranks, by 
means of cog-wheels and chains, are thoroughly understood ; 
so that now-a-days we see tricycle wheels reduced in size, so 
as to diminish the weight, until the mean diameter averages 
from 40 to 44 inches ; the position of the rider is even more 
advantageous than on a bicycle, because, there being no fear 
of tipping forward, the w r eight can be placed vertically over the 
pedals ; the geared-up small wheels fly round much faster than 
the rider's feet, and consequently the pace of a crack tricyclist 
is faster than that of a crack bicyclist on an equally heavy 
bicycle, and, indeed, it can be said that for indiscriminate riding j 
over bad roads, by night as well as day, the tricyclist can makp 
as good an average distance as the bicyclist, as is proven bi 



HISTORY OF CYCLES AND CYCLING. 21 

the long distance records of the sport. Pace aside, the tricycle 
is undoubtedly the most comfortable and pleasurable form of 
cycle, although the lover of bicycling generally grows enthusi- 
astic when alluding to the delightful sensation of balancing 
himself on a tall wheel. 

Safety bicycles are the outcome of a desire to secure the 
safety of a tricycle without relinquishing such advantages as 
balancing and finding but one wheel-track on the road. By 
reducing the size of the driving-wheel, and placing the rider 
further back from the steering centres, the liability to tip 
over forwards is reduced, and the danger of a side-fall is 
almost abolished by reason of the rider's feet being brought 
so close to the ground. The use of chain gearing enables 
the driving-wheel to be geared up, like the driving-wheels of a 
tricycle, for speed ; and these advantages, combined with such 
further benefits as the reduction of weight and wind-resistance, 
and the ability to mount and dismount easily, cause the 
"safety" to be very fast, and have created a demand for safety 
bicycles which is being amply answered by the trade. So 
varied are the peculiarities of these safety bicycles, indeed, 
that I have devoted a separate chapter to a narration of 
my personal experiences whilst experimenting with them. 




"the delightful freedom and comfort of 
e balance." 



CHAPTER III. 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 

'THE first safety bicycle I ever rode was then called a 
-*- velocipede, and would now be termed a boneshaker. Its 
safety consisted in the possession of a cast-iron steering spindle 
in the socket head, which said cast-iron spindle accommoda- 
tingly snapped short off upon the front wheel colliding with 
a kerbstone, so that instead of being thrown I was quietly 
dropped forward on to my feet, with the handle-bar in my 
hands ; when, with a steel spindle, 1 should have been measur- 
ing my length on the pavement. From the fact that each / 
performance entailed the purchase of a completely new front 
fork and steering spindle, this form of safety bicycle was 
scarcely an unqualified success, although a man of wealth 
might overlook such an objection. I am not a man of wealth. I 

Later on, the use of a very short handle-bar became gene- 
ral on spider-wheeled bicycles, the idea being that a rider's 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 



23 



legs could clear such a short bar when executing an involuntary 
dismount forwards. I found this true, when one evening, tra- 
versing a suburban street, a large retriever rushed out of a 
shop, and across the roadway, at exactly the moment of my 
passage in the transverse direction ; the dog and the wheel 
meeting suddenly, I continued onward, leaving my bicycle 
behind me. My own opinion was that short handle-bars were 
valuable aids to safe bicycling, but I believe that the dog dis- 




THE " 'XTRA " SAFETY BICYCLE. 



approved of them on the ground that a longer bar would have 
given me sufficient control over my wheel to have steered out 
of his way. This may be so. Dogs are intelligent animals. 

I well recollect the sensation that was produced at the 
Agricultural Hali when the first " 'Xtra " bicycle was exhibited. 
The exaggerated rake created the impression, at first sight, of 
a bad smash having occurred ; but when the machine was 
understood, its ugliness was for a long time the greatest draw- 



2 + 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLIXG. 



back to its popularity. The first time I mounted one I was 
somewhat astonished to find that all the accounts I had read 
must have fearfully distorted the truth regarding the peculiarity 
of its steering. I rode it at once with the utmost ease, steer- 
ing as steadily as I could have steered an ordinary bicycle. 
Although my practical experience of the " 'Xtra " has been 
but meagre, I incline to the belief that if I was compelled to 




THE "FACILE" SAFETY BICYCLE. 



ride only one bicycle all the year round, and deprived of a 
tricycle, I would select the "'Xtra" as my mount, for th.e 
reasons that it is as safe from headers and as comfortable as 
any bicycle, not geared too high for winter, and places its 
rider comparatively clear of the mud. 

The " Facile " was comparatively a new thing when I 
started to discover for myself whether its merits had been 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 25 

truthfully enlarged upon to me. Some men there are, I know, 
who cannot manage the " Facile " without a little assistance; 
one skilful rider I met, only this past summer, at Biggleswade, 
who could no more get the hang of the thing than he could fly. 
In my own case, the action came easily enough. I mounted 
a " Facile " outside Ellis's shop in Fleet Street, during the 
full tide of afternoon traffic, got the knack of the lever action 
at once, and rode it without a dismount to Farringdon Station. 
Here I got off to lengthen the connecting rods, having dis- 
covered that they were too short for my stretch ; and then 
rode on to my residence in the suburbs without any difficulty. 
It was while essaying to turn round in the roadway outside 
my house that I became acquainted with this machine's liability 
to fall sidewise. Having been accustomed only to the direct- 
crank bicycle, I found myself instinctively using my feet in the 
effort to turn the wheel ; and as the back-treadling on the 
levers had a different effect on the wheels to what it would 
have had with direct-crank action, I lost my balance, and went 
down ignominiously into the dust. Subsequently I found that, 
even with the levers at their full stretch, the machine was too 
small for me, to which fact I have to attribute a bad strain 
which my knee-cap joint experienced whilst riding hard up a 
slight rough hill — -Jolly Butcher's Hill, at Wood Green — the 
unusual lever action, combined with excessive bending of the 
knee, causing a kind of crick which became so painful ere my 
return home that it laid me up for several weeks ; and I have 
never entirely got over the effects since, but experience the 
pain periodically, or whenever making any unusual species of 
exertion. Somehow, although mentally satisfied that it was en- 
tirely caused by the machine being too small for me, I have never 



26 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

been able to entirely conquer my repugnance to the " Facile." 
In later times, I have ridden other " Faciles," including those 
belonging to such masters of the machine as Adams and 
Oxborrow, and found no ill-effects to follow ; but as a deliber- 
ate conclusion I have arrived at the conviction that there are 
some men in the world whose idiosyncrasies are better suited 
by the short sharp strokes and quick leg-motion of the 
11 Facile," just as there are some men who (like myself) can 
ride better with high than with low gearings ; and, also, just as 
there are men like Myers and Keen who run or ride in an 
upright style totally unattainable by the majority of runners 
and riders. 

The " Otto" is called a safety bicycle, and perhaps has as 
much claim to the title as some other machines. During the 
past five years I have acquired an undeserved reputation for 
being actively hostile to this velocipede. This is — contrarilv 
enough — really because I recognise the real cleverness of the 
invention, and have been so thoroughly in earnest in convincing 
myself of the truth about it. In The Tricyclist I have stated at 
length the reasons which forced me to the conviction that the 
" Otto " is a delightful machine for a man to ride who is suffi- 
ciently enthusiastic on behalf of its undoubtedly scientific 
principles ; for a man with leisure to go laboriously and pains- 
takingly to work to ride the " Otto," and nothing else, the 
pursuit must be a fascinating amusement. But the safety 
claimed for it lies rather " in the skill of the few than the 
experiences of the many," as I once saw it sententiously 
expressed ; and if there was no other disadvantage in riding 
it, I am of opinion that " Otto " riding would be condemned 
by the one drawback alone of the absence of " coasting." One 

) 



MY EXPERIENCES OE SAFETY BlCYCEING. 27 

of the greatest charms in cycling is the ability to run downhill 
with the feet off the treadles and the body completely at rest ; 
and if the " Otto " had not one other drawback, this alone 
would be an insurmountable objection. It is needless to dwell 
at any length upon the absence of safety when descending hills 
on the " Otto." Even the most experienced riders are com- 
pelled to use the utmost caution, and to work their feet, in 
riding downhill ; the fate of the less experienced may therefore 
be imagined. 

Hereby hangs a tale, which I will call 

MY FRIEND'S "OTTO." 

The " Otto Safety Bicycle " is a wonderful machine, and I have always 
admitted it was one of the cleverest inventions in the wheel world ; but for 
practical riding, the ordinary bicycle is faster and safer, " safety " being a 
decided misnomer for a machine of the Otto's known eccentricity. 

My friends all know of my little weakness against this " Otto," and are oc- 
casionally prone to chaff me concerning it ; but what I now want to speak about 
is an instance of diabolical cunning and unfriendly taking-of-advantage which 
is nothing less than shameful. I say that for a young man, in the prime of 
youth and strength, to take a mean advantage of an old man's prejudices, in 
the way Joey Boredell took advantage of mine, victimising me and holding me 
up to the undeserved ridicule of an unfeeling family circle, was shameful, Sir — 
shameful ! 

It was like this. I was a-wearied of London ; sick and tired of training on 
the cinder path, and utterly disgusted with Metropolitan existence. My soul 
yearned for the delirious joy of a wild wander amid the towering Quantocks of 
Somersetshire, amongst the verdant vales of Dorsetshire, and in and around the 
ferny dells of Devonshire. My longing for rural scenes was of that elongated 
description that will brook no delay, and I determined to cast aside all such 
paltry considerations as the convenience of my business connections, and take a 
holiday. And I took it. 

Readers who know me personally may regard it as an incredible thing that 
I have friends in all the counties named. But it is true. Being so far away, 
they do not see me very frequently, you see; hence their ability to tolerate my 



28 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

loathsome presence now and then. Perhaps they think that I shall leave them 
something in my will. I shall. To each I shall bequeath my blessing. 

Joey Boredell is an old friend of mine, and has recently succeeded to the 
business formerly belonging to the employer whom he was apprenticed to. From 
being an ardent bicyclist at one time, he has degenerated into a mere butterfly- 
rider : one who never dreams of riding more than three or four miles at a stretch, 
except when he has to use his bicycle to convey him between his place of business 
and his country house, twenty miles apart. Knowing his peculiarities, I was not 
altogether surprised when, seated in his snuggery, he capped my description of 
the tricycles I had been riding lately, by informing me that he had just bought an 
" Otto." I say that I was not surprised ; but to say that I was not disgusted would 
be to controvert the truth. I made no attempt to conceal my disgust, either ; but 
held forth eloquently upon the ridiculousness of him — Joey Boredell, a respectable 
tradesman, having the finest bookselling business in Langbourne, and with a growing 
connection for his printing department — of him riding an " Otto !" I put it to him 
that his life was not at all heavily insured ; that he had a mother and father who 
regarded him — however mistakenly — as the hope and pride of the family; that 
he had a sister whose maiden dreams were cheered by the thought of her darling 
brother ; and that it would be a permanent reflection upon me — me, a veteran 
cyclist — if I allowed a friend of mine to go down to his grave prematurely, and 
without his death doing any good to his fellow-creatures. To all of my protestations, 
Joe turned a smiling face, and disregarded my fervid adjurations, without the least 
sign of compunction. But I was not beaten yet. I resumed operations the next 
day; I expatiated upon all the weak points of the " Otto," and endeavoured to 
convince him that it was the vilest death-trap on earth ; I dwelt upon the sadness 
that would hang over Somersetshire like a black cloud, when he had passed to his 
untimely end through riding that horrible " Otto." I raved— I ranted ; I bellowed 
denunciations on the "Otto Safety Bicycle." Then I grew calm, and with an icy 
sarcasm I dilated upon the vaunted safety of the machine. And I pointed out that 
even the Captain of the Otto Club could not ride his machine at any pace, for 
had he not been beaten by even me ? Then I grew really angry. The provoking 
coolness with which Joey listened to my exhortations was utterly maddening, and 
I vowed that if I could set eyes on the miserable " Otto " I would kick its spokes 
to fragments rather than let my friend ride it. 

To my surprise, instead of declaring that he would take care I did not go near 
it, Joey proposed that we should go across to his place of business, where the 
machine then was, and have a look at it. 

So we went, I mentally resolving that my shoes should work fell havoc among 
those "Otto" spokes. Through the shop, between tall bookshelves, we passed out 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 29 

into the warehouse, and through the printing office, towards the back door. Then 
my friend drew me aside, and pointed into a little cupboard-like room, where a huge 
cylinder-like tank, a number of pipes, and the faint outline of the steam-engine used 
for working the presses, were visible. 

" There is my ' Otto !' " 

I looked again. 

It zi'as an " Otto " gas engine ! 



I think that the " Marvel" was the first rotary-action dwarf 
bicycle I ever rode. I had been on the " Pony " bicycle, 
several years ago, it is true ; but that is now an obsolete 
machine, and not worth taking into account. The " Marvel " 
was invented early in 1884, and made for experiment by 
Rucker & Co. As it is very little known, I may best explain 
it by saying that it closely resembles the " Humber " safety 
bicycle, but has a shorter base and no automatic steering con- 
troller. When I went, at the inventor's request, to try the 
machine, I had to fetch it from Mr. Rucker's private house, and 
my troubles at once began. Several vain attempts were made 
to mount it by the usual hopping process, and a pretty figure 
I cut, hopping and swerving and lurching all over the road 
without once getting hold of the treadles, intensely to the 
amusement of Mrs. Rucker, who had come out to the gate to 
watch me. Eventually I had to seek a friendly post which 
some road-repair men had erected; and with the assistance of 
a dozen or so small boys who were playing around, I did, after 
several efforts, get a fair start. Once a-going, I stuck to the 
thing like grim death, and was fortunate in having unfrequented 
thoroughfares to traverse, on my way to meet my club. The 
strange action and sensitive steering made my course more 
. er-ifitic than the veriest novice would describe when learning the 



3 o 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



boneshaker. I found that the feet were utterly powerless to 
assist the balance, and as the small wheel travelled in front, the 
steering handle-bar had to be constantly on the move, making 
little jerky turns now this side and now the other. A similar 
effect may be observed when wheeling the ordinary bicycle 
along ; if pushing it forward, the back wheel follows in the track 
of the front one without difficulty ; but if wheeled backwards 




THE "HUMBER" SAFETY BICYCLE. 



the little wheel is constantly endeavouring to run out of track, 
and the big wheel has consequently to be kept continually on 
the move, in little jerky turns, to approximate to a straight 
course. When I met my club that evening, it required two 
members to help me on every time I dismounted ; and whilst 
on the road I was given as wide a berth by all the other riders 
as though I had been afflicted with an infectious disease. The 
day afterwards I did succeed in mounting the machine; bLjjt 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 31 

never went at all steadily, the chief defect being the short 
distance between the two wheels, which made the steering very 
sensitive. On the "Humber," I notice, this defect is remedied, 
and the cam-and-spring controller aid in steadying the steering. 
Before the introduction of any of the two-speed gears which 
now flood the market, Mr. W. Britain brought under my notice 
his bicycle with a two-speed gearing. His idea was that riders 
usually have bicycles of too large a diameter, and that it would 
conduce to greater safety, as well as comfort, if bicyclists rode 
machines four or six inches under the usual standard. Bv 
using his two-speed gear, such machines could be made to 
travel as fast as if they had higher wheels, and at the same 
time the lower gear would enable the steepest hills to be 
climbed. I found that this bicycle did all that was claimed for 
it, the gear shifting easily and smoothly ; and there can be no 
doubt that Mr. Britain's contention is right. But bicyclists 
who ride the ordinary bicycle do not adopt big wheels for speed 
alone, but rather with the idea that they look so much more 
dignified and noble on a tall than on a shorter wheel. Never- 
theless, now that dwarf bicycles are so popular, Mr. Britain's 
idea is worth something ; and as his gear has been tested on 
tricycles with success, it might be found that (if properly made 
by competent engineers) the friction of the two-speed gear is 
no greater drawback than that of the usual chains and gear- 
wheels. The "Britain" safety bicycle was a still-born inven- 
tion, like many another good thing which fails for want of 
capital. But now that the Crypto Company have bought the 
patent, and combined it with the Crypto gear, it bids fair to 
become popular, especially on the " 'Xtra." safety with a small 
wheel geared up or level at will. 



3 2 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



On the "Kangaroo" bicycle I have done but short rides. 
George Smith lent me his machine — the one upon which he 
won the famous ioo miles road race — for a week, last Decem- 
ber, and after riding it for three days the intense vibration laid 
me up with concussive headache for a week, spoiling my Christ- 
mas holiday. It had a stiff spring. 

The great fault of this and similar wheels is that their axles 
have to be so short, so as to leave room for the two chain 




THE "KANGAROO" SAFETY BICYCLE. 



wheels outside the hubs, that they have not sufficient dish to 
stand the work put upon them. I know they are fast, and easy 
to manage ; I won two prizes on a roadster, borrowed for the 
occasion, at Tunbridge Wells ; but the excessive arm-work re- 
quired to hold the geared-up driving wheel in a straight line is 
destructive of comfort to everybody save those who (like G. 
Smith) are unusually strong in the arms. It is the same with 
the " Rudge," which machine in its racer form I have ridden on 
the path at Lillie Bridge and the Alexandra Park as well as on 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 33 

the road. The particular mount I had was too small for my 
stretch of leg, so that I did not make satisfactory time ; but I 
found it undoubtedly fast, and easy to manage. On the road, 
at a slow pace, I could steer with my feet, both hands being 
off ; and the action is practically very little different from that 
of the ordinary bicycle. On one of this pattern, I taught a lad 
to ride, mount, and dismount, in ten minutes. I found the 
" Rudge " quite a valuable trainer for tricycle racing, because 
when going at racing speed round the long curves at Lillie 
Bridge it was essential, to prevent wobbling and swerving, that 
a very regular and perpetual pressure should be kept on the 
pedals; if I gave jerky or wavering strokes, the " Rudge" would 
either swerve or wobble ; consequently the practice of pedalling 
all the way round was good training for tricycle racing. The 
strain on the arms also strengthened them. Unlike the tricycle 
and ordinary bicycle, however, I found that machines of the 
" Kangarudge " type (if I may coin such a compound designa- 
tion) must not be gripped rigid when spurting ; instead of the 
arms pulling the handle-bar steadily and uniformly, the pull 
must be alternate, the right handle being pulled whilst the right 
pedal descends, and the left handle pulled while the left pedal 
descends. If both handles are simultaneously gripped, as we 
grip them when spurting on the ordinary bicycle or tricycle, the 
machine will swerve. It has been noticed that the back-lash 
inseparable from two-chain safeties disappears when they are 
being ridden fast, but I have not yet seen or heard the pheno- 
menon explained. My idea is that the back-lash is occasioned 
by the weight of the foot on the rising pedal, and the weight of 
the rising pedal and crank themselves ; but that when the pace 
is very great the rider lifts his feet instead of allowing the pedals 



34 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

to raise them, and the centrifugal force or momentum of the 
pedal and crank are sufficient to keep them whirling round as 
fast as the chain moves, instead of lagging behind to be drawn 
up by the chain ; thus the pedal, crank, and gear-wheel do not 
drop behind when the pedal rises, and there is no way to be 
made up when the pedal reaches the top of its stroke. 

The "Rucker" tandem bicycle is surely entitled to be 
classed as a safety, being, like dwarfs, constructed in such a 
manner as to avoid headers, although side falls are possible. 




THE "RUCKER" TANDEM BICYCLE. 



(In this respect I refer to the "Rucker" tandem as generally 
known, not to the dwarf bicycle for two riders, which is not yet 
on the market.) Having bought a second-hand machine of 
this class last autumn, I bespoke the attendance of my friend, 
George Moore, to help me take it home. It was a nearly 
new one, with a 54m. front wheel, and 52m. back wheel, the 
tandem-bar being properly curved down ; but I understand that, 
by some unexplained means, the curve of the bar was not 
properly adjusted to suit the precise wheels we used ; hence 
my difficulties with it. Starting from the factory in Bethnal 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 35 

Green, we cautiously wheeled the vehicle along the granite-sets, 
and did not attempt to mount it until reaching the broad and 
unfrequented highway known as Approach Road. Here I, with 
great difficulty, mounted the light-weight on the front wheel, 
and started him slowly off,, guiding my rear wheel so as to 
follow in line. Then I made my first essay to mount, getting 
on the step all right, but all our combined efforts failed to keep 
the wheels in track, and I could not get the pedals ; once I did 
get into the saddle and touch the pedals, but the necessity of 
steering to keep the balance carried my wheel out of track with 
the front one, and I had to hop off again. So we walked a 
bit, until reaching the quiet road round Victoria Park, where 
I again mounted the Artist, and actually succeeded in mount- 
ing behind him. We rode for fully 100 yards, and then things 
began to happen. The steering requisite to balance took my 
wheel so far out of track with the front wheel that the neck 
met the side of the Stanley head ; this prevented further bal- 
ancing, and I was dragged down sidewise, falling with my wheel 
a mighty crash, and the front wheel with Moore on it was 
also dragged down. Just at this point a professional teacher 
of bicycling known to us happened to ride along, and he took 
the thing in hand. He and Moore put me up on the front 
wheel, -which I found quite easy to manage, its steering and 
balancing being exactly the same as an ordinary bicycle. But 
when the professor essayed to mount the rear wheel, all his 
skill was unavailing, and he made a worse job of it than I 
had done. It was the same when the Artist tried the back 
seat ; the wheels always ran out of track, locked the steering, 
and so down went the rear wheel, dragging the whole apparatus 
after it. We walked home, but a few days afterwards the 



36 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

Cartoonist came round to make another trial at mastering 
the machine. We had concluded by now that I had better 
ride in front, the bigger wheel suiting me best. Therefore, it 
became necessary, whenever we made a start, to enlist the 
assistance of chance passers-by to .help in holding the machine 
while I climbed over the tandem-bar into my saddle. This 
done, the Artist succeeded at last in mounting, and by dint 
of very careful steering in the track of the front wheel, and 
using his brake so that I did most of the traction, he conquered 
it sufficiently for us to ride round several blocks of houses. 
Then he became over-confident, and in turning a corner swung 
too far out ; to keep his balance he steered further out, the 
steering locked, and with a mighty crash we went sprawling on 
to the pavement, I just leaping clear of the machine and he 
bruising his shins and badly lacerating his nether garments. 
We adjourned for the day. With his inexpressibles carefully 
repaired, and with a quantity of liniment on his bruises, the 
dauntless designer of Bicycling News cartoons once again joined 
me in dragging forth the fiery untamed steed. We got aboard, 
and rode in triumph as far as Canonbury Station ; but I cannot 
say that the journey was very exhilarating. Every time a cart 
or vehicle of any sort approached, our apprehensions gave us 
extreme torture, and what with my caution in looking-out 
ahead to steer a straight course, and my companion's anxious 
watching of my wheel so as to steer his own truly in track, we 
did not have much time to take in the beauties of the land- 
scape. The remarks made were entertaining, too, probably 
the funniest being that of one irrepressible small boy, who 
remarked very audibly that the one in front was teaching the 
other to ride, and another bov chimed in with " Yes, and 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 37 

they've fastened their bicycles together so's the front one shall 
pull tother 'un along, and not let him fall." We got home, but 
the Artist sternly and determinedly expressed his rooted aver- 
sion to riding that tandem any more ; so I got two ordinary 
backbones and back-wheels fitted to the drivers, and thus 
turned a difficult tandem into two easy bicycles. I do not 
know whether every " Rucker " tandem is as difficult to ride as 
mine was, but I should imagine not. My own idea is that 
there was some defect in the "lining" or parallelism of the 
joints, which caused all its eccentricity. In America and Ger- 
many, the " Rucker" style of tandem bicycle is more popular 
than in England ; indeed, I believe it is now obsolete in this 
country. 

I rode some twenty miles of hilly road on the "Carr" safety 
bicycle, one day last winter. This is a two-speeded dwarf on a 
very similar principle to Britain's bicycle, but both the speeds 
were too low for me. It was still in an unfinished state, too, so 
that a verdict would scarcely be just upon the trial under such 
circumstances. 

In a former volume of the "Wheel World" I have referred 
to some experiences of safety bicycles which I gleaned at the 
Bingley Hall, Birmingham. (See page 398, Vol. 2.) In "The 
Wobbleries," during the Speedwell Show, I rode the "Ante- 
lope," the " B.S.A.," the " Challenge," the " Marvel," and the 
" Rover," but the smooth flooring precluded a really fair trial. 
Of these, the " B.S.A." pleased me the most, being steadiest 
and easiest to mount. But I should not care to ride it — or any 
other such very small-wheeled bicycle — on the road, the small 
wheels occasioning such excessive vibration. The "Antelope " 
I liked almost as well as the " B.S.A.," but for road work the 



38 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

handles of this machine must be too far back, in the position 
which has been ridiculed as " putting the rider's hands into 
his breeches pockets." To mount the "Antelope' 1 was an 
easier accomplishment — on the dry boards — than it looked, all 
that was necessary being to place the left toe on the step, the 
right foot well forward on the ground, and to give a good steady 
springy skip forward, lifting the body into the saddle by the 
hands and left foot. The " Marvel," on the floor, was again 
found too sensitive in steering. The " Challenge " wanted a 
few moments' careful practise before it was mastered, the fork 
being so far behind the driving-wheel axle that the uninitiated 
rider could not steer it a yard at first, but this strangeness very 
rapidly disappears. 

I have also ridden the "Ivel," made by Albone ; it is an 
ordinary sort of dwarf, of the "Kangarudge" type, and steers 
very well indeed. Albone also makes a capital rear-driver on 
the "Rover" pattern, with the steering centres arranged at 
such a cunning angle that it can be ridden, and steered round 
easy corners, without the use of the hands. It is a very fast 
and staunch roadster. 

The " Kover," which I have purposely left until the last, 
is, in my opinion, the best of all the dwarfs. It is safer than 
even the "'Xtra," easier to mount and dismount, because 
closer to the ground, has less vibration than any other dwarf, 
and is unquestionably very fast. The reason I give preference 
to the " 'Xtra," if confined to one machine all the year round, 
was that I opine that the level-gearing of the " 'Xtra," and 
its less liability to catch mud, would turn the scale in its 
favour. The "Rover," for summer use, must take the palm; 
I find that I can fly uphill at a great pace on the "Rover" 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 

geared to 69 inches. It was at the Tunbridge Wells Camp 
that I first saw the new pattern of this bicycle. At Bingley 
Hall I had ridden the first pattern of the "Rover," and found 
that it steered even easier than the " Kangarudge " type ; but 
when my machine met my astonished gaze at Tunbridge Well- 
I found that in place of a vertical fork and bridle rods the 
front wheel was steered by a direct fork sloping or raking 
back at a very excessive angle, greater in fact than that of 



THE "ROVER SAFETY BICYCLE. 



the " 'Xtra." This rake makes the steering very peculiar. 
On the "Marvel" or " Humber"-type, as I have explained, 
the small front-steering wheel has to be perpetually making 
quick little movements to and fro; but with the "Rover" 
the reverse is the case, and the learner finds that if he gives 
way to the instinctive tendency to steer rapidly aside when 
the balance seems to require it, he will go zigzagging along 



40 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

or utterly collapse. To ride the " Rover," the steering-bar 
must be turned even slower than on the ordinary bicycle. 
If the rider seems to be about to fall to one side, he should 
not quickly turn the wheel towards that side, but must en- 
deavour to overcome the instinctive desire so to do, and to 
keep the wheel as straight as possible. The faster the pace, 
the easier this becomes, and the new "Rover" handle-bar 
is admirably adapted for controlling the steering, either by 
pulling or by leaning on the handles. After a few minutes' 
endeavour to ride my "Rover" on the grass, I took it on the 
road, and "got the hang of it" at once by adopting the 
American teachers' system of riding on the step downhill until 
the steering was mastered. Then I rode it in the meet 
procession — a performance which is sufficient to stamp a 
bicyclist as master of his machine. And on the morrow I 
rode it home, finding out its wonderful hill-climbing properties 
by romping away from everybody when rising a long hill. I 
have since ridden it in a race, and found it very fast, con- 
sidering it is a full roadster, on the track ; and its safety has 
been demonstrated by riding it up and down kerbstones, rush- 
ing it down steep hills and jambing the brake on suddenly, 
and steeplechasing across mounds and furrows in a brickyard. 
The rider's weight being so far behind is the secret of its 
immunity from headers, and I believe that the "Rover" 
front wheel will break before its rider can go a cropper. 
Mounting by the pedal is remarkably easy, and dismounting 
can be done with' facility by either springing back (retaining 
hold of the handles) or by slipping off on one side, throwing 
the leg not actually "over the handles," but over the frame 
between saddle and handles. I can ride it at any pace with 



MY EXPERIENCES OF SAFETY BICYCLING. 



4i 



one hand. The steering appears to me to be eccentric from 
the same cause as made Singer put his patent head to the 
" 'Xtra." The chief defect of the "Rover" is its habit of 
throwing mud into its own bearings and chain ; this is why 
I give preference to the " 'Xtra " for all the year round, 
because my riding diary contemplates journeys on 365 days 




A "rover" tandem bicycle. 



per annum, and I have therefore to consider cleaning con- 
tingencies. Riders who stop at home when it is muddy will 
not mind this item so much. 

The "Premier" safety, the "Club" safety, the "Bicyclette," 
and several other copies of the " Rover," share its character- 
istics in a greater or less degree, various little items of detail 
in construction being their only points of difference. 

Several attempts have been made to construct a geared 



42 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLIXG. 



dwarf bicycle for two riders, tandem fashion, but neither has 
met with any degree of practical success. The simplest, 
perhaps, is my own dodge for turning an ordinary "Rover' 
bicycle into a tandem, by gearing up the front wheel and 
adding a saddle and handles in front of the steering-head. 
This would be very fast on the road, but owing to the great 
rake of the front fork the front rider's weight tends to turn the 
steering-wheel violently out of a straight line, and the rear rider 
is therefore compelled to use tremendous arm force in steering. 
I anticipate that a really practicable and fast tandem dwarf 
geared bicycle will be perfected ere long. 




JC 



■ / 




CHAPTER IV. 

THE UTILITARIAN ASPECT OF CYCLING. 

T)ROBABLY a very large majority of cyclists buy and ride 
■*- their cycles solely for pleasure, but of these a considerable 
number take into account the eminently healthful nature of 
the pastime when deciding to adopt it as a means of spending 
their leisure hours. Of the minority, many have commenced 
cycling solely as a means whereby they may recover health 
and strength after a debilitating illness ; and a very respectable 
number of people use the cycle —and especially the tricycle — 
as an aid to business. 

Leaving out, for the present, the pursuit of cycling for 
amusement alone, it is interesting to observe the very utilitarian 
influence exerted by cycles in many departments of commerce, 
as well as in the direction of facilitating locomotion in various 
ways, and as a means whereby the convalescent invalid may 
regain health. On the latter point the " Monthly Gazette " 
of the Cyclists' Touring Club recently printed a letter from 



44 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

a clerical member, whose case is typical of a large number of 
others, although the amount of the income mentioned is 
perhaps somewhat below that of most cycling clergymen. Vide 
infra : — 

" HOW I BECAME A TRICYCLIST. 

" Income £200, family large, parish covering hill and valley, mountain and glen, 
ten miles one way and nine the other. How under such circumstances to dispense 
with a horse ? That was the question which agitated my mind as I lay on my sofa, 
doubled up with an attack of lumbago. Kind friends obligingly hinted that the grey 
mare I drove was an extravagance. Parishioners declared she was a necessity. 
What was to be done? Happy thought — a tricycle! First cost pretty near all the 
cost ; fodder, shoeing, harness repairs, constant mending of conveyance, all to be 
swept clean from the future bill of costs. I resolved to make the trial, and at once 
set about it. The grey mare is sacrificed, the phaeton ditto. Then came a few 
weeks of perplexity, hardly anticipated. What make and style of machine am 1 to 
secure ? Agents add to the perplexity daily by sending advertisements and des- 
criptive catalogues, and excerpts from sporting and other papers. I am told that 
the ' Defiance' defies all attempts to compete with it; that the 'Coventry Rotary' 
puts every rival out of Coventry into Coventry ; the 'Premier' insists upon its name 
with full significance; the 'Meteor,' appropriately connected with Star-ley and Co., 
flashes its claims before my dazed eyes; the 'Apollo' (musical god), equally ap- 
propriately hailing from Singer, demands a hearing. Then follow twenty other 
makes, all preferring claims to some special advantage in ease, or speed, or safety. 
I am in a maze, and half repent my rashness in embarking upon such an enquiry, 
opening up an apparently interminable vista of three-trackers, two-trackers, band 
brakes and spoon brakes, double-drivers and single-drivers, front-steerers or rear- 
steerers. At last I write to an experienced rider, whose opinion I have reason to 
rely on. He says, ' If you want a racer, perhaps a "Humber" would be the thing; 
if you want a handy machine to go through an ordinary doorway, and stable in your 
study, get a " Coventry Rotary " ; but if you require a thorough strong, safe, and 
durable machine, buy a " Royal Salvo." ' And I did, and have no reason, after four 
years' experience, to repent of my decision — no disparagement thereby intended to 
any other makes or makers. And does it answer? Do you find that a tricycle really 
can be a substitute for a horse, fair weather and foul, good roads and bad ? To 
these questions the reply must be qualified. On more than one occasion, with a 
strong head-wind, a miry, sticky road, plentifully darned with loose, aggravate 
ingly rough and angular stones, I have secretly envied the occupants of a light trap 



THE UTILITARIAN ASPECT OF CYCLING. 45 

sitting behind a clever pony. But moderately dry roads and calmer skies, with 
zephyr airs, have dissipated the temporary dissatisfaction, and restored that zest of 
the cyclist for one of the most fascinating modes of progression human ingenuity has 
invented and mechanical skill perfected. Thus I became a tricyclist, doing honestly 
all my work with my machine all the year round, and enjoying in due season many a 
delightful and marvellously inexpensive tour, averaging on such occasions, even in a 
stiff and hilly country, quite innocent of steam rollers or any modern methods of 
road improvement, something well over 40 miles per day, and carrying some i61bs. 
of luggage into the bargain. 

" Shall I add that since I have become a tricyclist I have parted with my old 
enemy, lumbago, and generally feel stronger and better than ever before in my life. 
Apart, therefore, from the saving effected, and the pleasure derived, I may fairly say 
that on all accounts I am glad I became a tricyclist. " W. A. S." 

This instance of utilitarian cycling being at once of econo- 
mical and sanatory value is a very common experience, 
countless instances having been recorded of clergymen and 
doctors using cycles for paying parochial or professional visits 
with advantage to their health. In the preface to a volume 
entitled " Health Upon Wheels," Dr. Gordon Stables, CM., 
R.N., says : — 

" Ten years a o, being then in my thirty-fifth year — a proof in itself that one is 
never too old to learn — I accepted my half-pay and ceased to serve in the Royal 
Navy, being a martyr to rheumatism, which I had acquired on the coast of Africa 
and in India. 

" I took to literature as a profession. There was no healing power in that, but 
I shortly took to cycling — the bicycle first, latterly the tricycle. My rheumatism 
used to come on periodically, and last for six weeks at a time, during which I could 
hardly stand on the floor, nor sleep in bed without feet and legs elevated. Since I 
adopted cycling as an exercise, and thus found pleasant means to keep my skin in 
perfect working order, I have never had a single twinge of rheumatism. God forbid, 
reader, that I should seem to boast of my health, but I must be permitted to say 
that I am most active for my age, and though a thin man, can 'stay' as well as 
many younger. 

" Cycling has banished my pains and lightened my mind, and made me 
physically and mentally double the individual I was that mournful morning when 
I left Haslar Hospital leaning on a stick." 



46 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

If I were to quote examples of all the testimony which has 
been placed on record of the power of judicious cycling to cure 
the invalid, this chapter would assume the appearance of a 
patent-medicine-vendor's circular, because the vast number of 
cases wherein patients had derived marked and radical benefit 
by adopting cycle riding, on the recommendation of their 
medical advisers, affords astonishing evidence of the power of 
fresh air, wholesome exercise, change of scenery, and the con- 
sequent exhilaration of spirits, to effect physical cures in an 
extraordinary diversity of ailments. Even such complaints as 
varicose veins in the limbs, which one would imagine to be the 
very species of infirmity most likely to sustain injury from such 
an exercise as cycling, have been found to be modified and 
even cured by gentle cycling exercise ; a correspondence in 
the Touring Club's ''Gazette" recently bringing to light facts 
of which the following are samples : — 

" I have been a rider for this last five years on a ' Humber ' tricycle, but never 
found it to make any difference to the veins of my legs. I have ridden 95 miles in 
one day, nor have my legs been tired, although I am 63 years old. But if I were to 
ride against the wind when it is strong my legs would feel tired. 

"These last four years I have taken some long tours. Last summer I rode to 
John-o'-Groat's in Scotland. I passed through Edinburgh, Perth, Inverness. Com- 
ing back to Inverness I branched off to Aberdeen, Montrose, and Dundee. The dis- 
tance from heme was about 1,400 miles. My legs were sounder, I think, than when 
I started. 

11 In walking 20 miles they would be tired, so that I should require almost a 
week's rest to get right. 

" I have a weak instep, and when I walk any distance I feel it very much ; it 
makes me positively lame, but it does not matter how much I ride on my tricycle, 
I never feel it. " Robt. Pailthorp." 



" In regard to the effect of tricycling on varicose veins, I may state for the benefit 
of all whom it may concern that for 16 or 18 years I had been a great sufferer from 



THE UTILITARIAN ASPECT OF CYCLING. 47 

them. I need scarcely add I have had the best of medical advice — an all to no 
purpose. 

" Three years ago my children had a ' Rudge ' tandem tricycle, which I was 
induced to try, and I found such great relief after working it, that shortly after I 
obtained a single tricycle for myself, the ' Royal Mail ' two-track. As I was very 
nervous of being pitched out or upset in any way, I thought that, the machine hav- 
ing an open front, I should not be so likely to knock my legs were I to meet with an 
accident. Thanks to Major Knox-Holmes, who kindly lent me his ' Humber Crip- 
per ' one evening to try, I think I have found the cure for varicose veins in my case. 
I was so surprised at the light and easy way it travelled, I ordered one the next day. 
My first journey on it was from Chancery Lane to Ripley and back in the day, and I 
did not feel the slightest ill effect — on the contrary, I felt great relief, and am looking 
forward to the finer weather, when we can take our usual evening runs. I trust this 
letter will be the means of showing fellow-sufferers a relief, if not an absolute cure, 
for varicose veins. "A Lady Rider." 

As a general improver of the health of people who are 
simply delicate, without being subject to any specific disease, 
cycling's influence has been most marked in my own case. I 
was always a sickly boy, and did not excel at any athletic 
game; my lungs were feeble, and my limbs indifferently strong. 
At the age of twelve I contracted scarlet fever, which assumed 
such a virulent aspect, that after being given up as a hopeless 
case, I just recovered, but with the total loss of my hearing. 
From that day to this— sixteen years — I have been totally 
deaf; and up to eighteen years of age I was still sickly and 
feeble, with a preternaturally pale countenance, short breath, 
weak chest, and limbs incapable of running, or pulling an oar, 
for a mile at a stretch. Any exertion on a hot day would make 
me faint. Doctors shook their heads when sounding me with 
the stethoscope ; and fellows in the office where I worked were 
of the opinion that I was "in a galloping consumption." I 
have reason to believe that any of my friends would have con- 
sidered it a good investment to insure my life, if they had 



48 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

thought it possible that any insurance office would grant a 
policy. Ten years have worked a transformation, indeed, in me. 
I am ten years older, 'tis true, but there is not much physical 
delicacy about me. My face has assumed a positively ruddy 
glow of health ; my wind and limbs are good enough to enable 
me to win occasional races in first-class company on both road 
and path ; I ride almost every day in the year for pleasure 
alone ; in 1883 and 1885, indeed, I was out riding in the open 
air on 365 days each year, with a total of over 6,000 miles in 
'83, and over 7,000 miles in 1885, knowing literally not a day's 
illness. This change has been brought about entirely by 
cycling. In 1876, I went bicycle-mad, and I have been bicycle- 
mad or tricycle-mad ever since. My friends did all they could 
to dissuade me from taking to cycling, " as I was not strong 
enough " ; but the most rabid anti-cyclist amongst them has 
long since come to admit that cycling has saved my life ; and 
every member of my family is now a rider. Of course, the 
alteration took time. At first, the exercise was so hard that I 
overdid it in my enthusiasm. My shins used to ache fright- 
fully after a short ride, and for several years I could not go for 
a journey of twenty miles without suffering pain in the calves 
for days afterwards. But luckily I was very bicycle-mad — and 
I persevered — with the result that I can now ride anywhere, at 
any season, without experiencing the slightest pain. I have won 
upwards of fifty prizes for bicycle and tricycle racing ; have fre- 
quently done journeys of a hundred miles and more in the day — 
my longest being 202 miles in twenty-one consecutive hours ; 
have repeatedly ridden up all the steepest hills known to cycling 
fame; and, to cut this braggadocio episode short, have proved to 
my own satisfaction that cycling has made a strong man of me. 



THE UTILITARIAN ASPECT OF CYCLING. 49 

Then, apart from its value as a pleasant curative agent, 
the cycle has strictly utilitarian value. It is to many men 
a cheap, fast, and always-ready means of conveyance. Doctors, 
lawyers, agents, tradesmen, and various other people whose 
business requires rapid locomotion in directions not readily 
accessible by rail, find in the cycle an ever-saddled horse 
which requires no grooming nor food. Save when a line of 
railway is close at one's door, with a frequent train service 
to stations close at the doors of one's friends, the cycle is a 
most convenient means of visiting people at short distances. 
For business men it combines the advantages of rapidity with 
the addition of being a more agreeable and recreative form 
of travelling than either the rail, the omnibus, or the cab. 
Newspaper correspondents hurry to the scene of their labours 
on cycles, and, immediately after gathering the materials for 
their reports, speed back to their printing-offices without 
worrying about such considerations as railway time-tables or 
cab fares. Parliamentary reporters at the English House of 
Commons employ regular messengers, mounted on bicycles, 
to carry their notes in periodical batches to the printers. A 
large number of tricycles, fitted with baskets or boxes for the 
reception of parcels, are in use by the Post Office in Lon- 
don and other towns, as well as in rural districts. One of 
the largest evening newspapers in London employs men to 
carry parcels of newspapers in carrier tricycles, effecting a 
saving of ^600 per annum, and gaining indirect profit by 
virtue of the superior velocity of the tricycles as compared 
with the horse -carts formerly used. Weekly newspapers, 
whose cartage work is too intermittent to make it worth while 
to keep a stud of cart-horses, use tricycles with similar 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



economy ; and tradesmen of all kinds find carrier tricycles 
capable of collecting and delivering their parcels more ex- 
peditiously, and at far less cost, than can be done with 
horse-carts. 




THE CARRIER TRICYCLE. 



Some people object that this utilitarianism is vulgarising 
fuhe pastime of cycling, by detracting from its ornamental 
attributes ; but I have little sympathy with such hyper- 
aesthetic complaints ; the probability being that as the severely 
utilitarian use of cycles advances, so will the remaining pre- 
judice against the machines become utterly stamped out ; 
and in no case is it likely that the local grocer's errarfd-boy 
delivering tea, sugar, and biscuits by means of a carrier 
tricycle will have a detrimental effect upon the local lawyer 
who rides an ornamental tricycle, or on the young squire 
who dashes about on a bicycle, for amusement. 




CHAPTER V. 



CYCLING AS A PASTIME. 



]V /TOST cyclists, as I have before observed, are cyclists for 
*■*■** the fun of the thing, taking up the practice of cycling 
in the same way that they would adopt cricket, or lawn-tennis, 
or any other out-door game ; and the secret of the permanent 
enchantment which wheel-riding possesses is that it is not only 
a game but at the same time a means of travel. Bicyclists 
talk about the delightful sensation of balancing their single- 
traL.£ vehicle, but tricyclists have advantages which no bicyclist 
can ever enjoy. The rider of the narrow-gauger must always 
keep a wary eye on the road, lest a sudden patch of stones 
or an inequality in the road should upset his equilibrium, 
but the tricyclist can look about him to the right and left, 
secure in the consciousness that the worst fate he can meet 
with is to experience a momentary " bump " if a wheel strikes 
an obstacle. There are, however, still to be found riders who 
swear by the bicycle on certain grounds which are of import 



52 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

to them ; and as recently as February, 1886, the following 
summary of the matter was published in the Touring Club's 
"Gazette":— 

"BICYCLE AND TRICYCLE. 

" I am an ancient cyclist of some fifteen years' standing, and still stick to my 
first love, the ordinary bicycle, and I can say that in five years' pretty continuous 
riding — chiefly town roads to and from my office, and for three months one journey 
per day in the dark — I have not had a single accident. 

" It seems to me that a tricycle, to a man active enough to ride a bicycle, has 
only the following advantages : — 

" 1. It is safer and faster in the dark, on greasy roads, and in crowded streets. 

" 2. It is more fitted for carrying awkward-shaped articles, such as photo- 
graphic things, shopping parcels, &c, &c. 

" On the other hand, the ordinary — 

" 1. Is the essence of simplicity, and, therefore, cheap and easy to keep in 
order. 

"2. Can, at a weight of 4olbs. (the weight of a racing 'Humber' tricycle), be 
made strong and comfortable enough for anything. 

" 3. As a consequence of 1 and 2, must always be, with the above exceptions 
the fastest, and therefore easiest, machine to ride, and the cheapest. (Moreover, ther 
is a peculiar sweeping glide in the motion of an ordinary, like skating, which you 
don't seem to get in any other machine. It seems part of yourself, and ready to leap 
forward or bend aside at a wish.) 

"4. In touring, allows its rider to pick smooth places, and convey it wilhou 
difficulty in trains, boats, or carts, or even to carry it over stiles or other obstruc 
tions ; and also to see over hedges and get a better view of the country. 

" 5. With a 17m. wheel-bag, will carry a complete change (coat, trousers, &c. 
for a week, and that out of the way of the rider in mounting, and without disturbin 
the poise of the machine. 

"6. Can, and has been, fitted with a band-brake (like all tricycles), the supei 
ority of which to the ordinary spoon is obvious. 

II (With light turning handle, fitted parallel to, or inside, the ordinary fixe*d be 
handle, the band-brake can be kept on for any time without fatigue, and, in fact, htJs 
been kept for an hour on a mountain pass of 1 in 12.) 

"7. Can, like safeties, be fitted with leg-rests and mud-guards. 

II I think, therefore, sir, that for the active it is pretty clear that the ordinary is 
still the best all-round machine, and is possessed of advantages which have of late 
years been rather overlooked. " C. R. H." 




CYCLING AS A PASTIME. 53 

In contrast to the above I clip from the 1881 issue of " The 
Wheelman's Year Book " the following eloquent tribute to 
the tricycle, which was, it must be borne in mind, penned at 
a time when the modern tricycle was yet in its infancy. Since 
the date of its appearance the writer has, I believe, entirely 
relinquished bicycle-riding, although he has by no means lost 
the agility and nerve requisite to mount the bicycle ; but the 
improvements that have been effected in tricycle construction 
have caused many active young men to prefer the broad-gauge 
velocipede to its more showy but less comfortable progenitor. 
The extract referred to is as follows : — 

"A WORD FOR TRICYCLING. 

" BY HENRY STURMEY. 

11 Although a bicyclist myself, I am, I think, fairly well qualified to speak some- 
what conclusively as regards tricycles and tricycling, as I have just completed a long 
series of trials of the different three-wheeled steeds preparatory to the production of 
my 'Tricycle Annual for 1881. ' In the course of these trial trips I have enjoyed 
some of the pleasantest cruises it has ever been my lot to take upon wheels of any 
kind, for the tricycle has charms in its use possessed by no bicycle under the sun, as 
notwithstanding its greater weight and consequent increase of fatigue in working, 
the more lowly position of its rider, its greater cumbrousness, and that it lacks that 
arrow-like swiftness and delicacy of motion attained by the bicycle, its pleasures are 
truly its own, and so peculiar to it as to be participated in by no other means of 
locomotion. True, the tricycle has its vagaries and eccentricities, occasionally, for 
instance, whirling suddenly round at right angles to its course, and giving its rider the 
pleasant prospect of whatever ditch, stone wall, or hedge may happen to be in the 
neighbourhood, in place of the road upon which he would prefer pursuing the even 
tenour of his way; or by the exercise of such evolutions as cause the rider to seek a 
sudden safety in flight, leaving the machine to calm and control by itself the exuber- 
ance of its metalliferous spirits.-'- Still, with even these peculiarities — which may be 
checked by proper attention and constant practice — it certainly does not possess that 
playful though somewhat unpleasant propensity some bicycles have of removing 
their rearmost quarters from mother earth, and depositing their riders thereon 



* These defects have been entirely removed in the tricycles constructed since this was written. 



54 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

instead. But to return to the pleasures obtainable by tricycular recreation. What 
can be more truly enjoyable than on the approach of evening, on a calm autumnal 
day, to take one's sober, steady, old three-wheeler, and trundle along lazily at a six 
or seven mile pace out of the crowded city streets, far from the hum and busy din of 
men, into the country, there leaving the high roads — those beaten tracks of civilisa- 
tion—and taking a quiet bye-lane, to strike deep into the very heart of the country in 
the truest sense of the word, coming upon some fresh beauty of nature at every turn 
of the tortuous way, giving scarcely a thought to the state of the surface beneath the 
wheels, which, like the surroundings, is rural in the extreme, and would cause a 
bicyclist to literally ' sit upon thorns,' but steadily journeying on, admiring and 
imbibing deeply the wonders of Nature, here stopping to pluck some floral beauty, 
or resting at ease, lost in admiration at coming upon some avenue of gnarled and 
knotted trunks, alternating with those of younger growth supporting tier upon tier of 
thickly intertwined foliage, radiant with the sun's setting rays, which light up the ex- 
quisite autumnal tints of the leaves, and inspire a reverent awe and admiration of the 
wondrous effects of Nature ? Or perchance coming upon some secluded village, half 
buried amidst the trees, where the children stare in wonder at the strange machine, 
and rush indoors to call out their mothers to look at ' that there feller goin' along,' 
and where the sounds of the half-hidden waterfall and the gurgling brook combine in 
harmony with the notes of the feathered songsters in the branches above, and the 
melodious chime of the bells of the village church falls in sweetest cadence upon the 
ear as the cycler recedes from the enchanted spot ? Such trips as these, exploring 
the byeways, searching out all odd out-of-the-way corners of the district, discover- 
ing the best place from whence to stock the fernery; or perchance halting by the 
side of a clear rippling streamlet, to exercise for the nonce the ' gentle art ' in 
hitherto unknown waters ; or, with a more practical aim, to cull the freshest of 
cresses from their watery bed ; these are peculiarly enjoyable upon the tricycle. 

"Again, the steadiness of three wheels makes riding a pleasure in all weathers; 
as, let the roads be ever so greasy, the cyclist, notwithstanding the occasional failure 
of his driving wheel to ' bite,' will not be in momentary fear lest he himself shall 
' bite' — not the dust but the mud and stones — by the slipping away of his wheel. 

" Well do I remember a most enjoyable spin I indulged in upon the ice last 
winter, which quite opened up to me a new beauty of the tricycle. Upon a magnifi- 
cent surface, with the greatest of ease, the tricyclist spins along at a speed scarcely 
equalled by the average skater, turns and twists, and performs gyrations on the level 
track to his heart's content, and explores with rapid, easy and graceful motions all 
the nooks and crannies of the shore of the river or lake as the case may be. 

" Another especially interesting feature in the tricycle — the value of which in 
this respect has but lately been discovered — is its adaptability for the use of the fair 



CYCLING AS A PASTIME. 55 

sex, quite a large number of whom habitually drive out in the neighbourhood of 
Coventry upon fine afternoons, either manipulating a machine themselves, and ac- 
companied by some friend of the sterner sex upon another as a body-guard, or 
sharing the peculiar advantages of a ' sociable.' 

" In fine, this most enjoyable method of progression is not only healthy, safe and 
exhilarating, but offers such advantages in ease and rapidity of motion for business 
purposes that I feel sure few who had once mastered the very slight rudimentary 
knowledge necessary for its commencement, would be without a tricycle for twice 
their price ; and for myself I can assure one and all that I as much enjoy a ' trip on 
a tri.' as a ' run on my bi.' — and although I shall stick to the two-wheeler as long as I 
can, I would not be without ' a wheel ' for half its weight in gold : and should I ever 
find myself lacking sufficient alacrity to mount and manipulate my bicycle, I shall 
fall back upon its more sober relative as upon a renewed lease of life." 

Before quitting the subject of comparison between two and 
three wheelers, I may add that I was one of the most unlucky 
riders when bicycling, experiencing many severe tumbles — 
usually on the race-track — and I took to tricycling exclusively 
for about two years, but latterly I have purposely resumed 
bicycling as an occasional change, and find that the ordinary 
bicycle is so very uncomfortable, owing to the rider being 
perched directly above the point at which his driving-wheel 
meets obstacles, and, moreover, the ordinary bicycle spring is 
so defective in flexibility, that I shall never ride it again. The 
safety bicycle I frequently ride for amusement, as it is 
undoubtedly fast, and as safe as a tricycle in daylight ; but 
for indiscriminate use, in the dark as well as in daylight, the 
tricycle of to-day stands pre-eminent. The one chief point 
against the tricycle is that there is more of it to keep clean. 

It is amusing to learn the bicycle. There is no doubt about 

that. It is particularly amusing, indeed, if you have a tutor 

who takes care to prevent you hurting yourself when you 

tumble. A good tutor, well padded by an abundance of adipose 

tissue, is a capital thing to use for tumbling upon. It is some- 



THE PLEASURES OE CYCLING. 



what the same with skating ; but skating beginners are on the 
same level as their tutors, so they do not get such chances to fall 
on top of them as do cycling beginners. Learning is amusing, 
decidedly ; especially for the lookers-on. Let us draw a veil 
over this period of cycling. Those who have learnt to skate, 
either on the ice or with roller-skates on a rink, can in a 
measure appreciate the novice's feelings. 

By-and-bye, when the " Timid Toddler " has become a 
" Wary Wobbler," and can just ride alone, his own conceit 




DOWNHILL." 



rewards him by feelings of conscious pride at his consummate 
address, and he yearns to be regarded as quite a " Go-it- 
Graceful," if not, indeed, one of the " Fancy Few." 

By the time he becomes really master of his machine, he 
discovers that cycling is a pastime which has features far 
removed beyond such boyish ambitions as circling around a 
square or gliding gracefully past the house wherein dwells 
some fair charmer of his acquaintance. Places in the vicinity 




FfE I SOP 



FACILIS DESCENSUS. 



CYCLING AS A PASTIME. 57 

of his residence, which used to be inaccessible save by railway, 
are now brought within the scope of an evening ramble awheel. 
After business, the bicycle or tricycle is mounted, the suburban 
streets are threaded, and away from the town flies the wheel- 
man, with the evening breeze fanning his face, and the sweet 
scent of meadow, moorland, and wood wafted to his delighted 
senses at every turn of his wheel. It is an intoxicating species 
of recreation which impels a poetic fire to rage within many a 
cycling breast, even though the tongue or the pen of the cyclist 
can do but scant justice in expressing what he feels. In this 
case, parody is frequently the means whereby an attempt is 
made to say what he wishes ; and there is scarcely a popular 
poem in existence which has not been parodied to cycling 
themes. In my young days, I was one of the worst of sinners 
in this respect, and of my many perversions of fine poems a 
sample is that which I called 

"THE SONG OF THE BICYCLIST." 
(After Tennyson.) 

I ride from haunt of busy men, 

Released from cares and duties; 
And speed through meadow, copse, and glen, 

Admiring Nature's beauties. 

By scores of hills I hurry down, 

And glide between the hedges; 
Through hamlets now, and then a town, 

And dart across the bridges. 

On foot let others choose to go, 

Or on the flowing river; 
For men may run, and men may row 

But I ride on for ever. 



58 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

I clatter over stony roads, 

Along the lanes and highways ; 

Past sturdy teams with market-loads, 
Among the pleasant bye-ways. 

With many a curve my wheels I ply, 
And up the hills go treadling; 

And down the valleys swiftly fly, 
Or carefully back-pedalling. 

Mile after mile I gaily go 

Without a fear whatever, 
For men may run, and* men may row, 

But I ride on for ever. 

I wind about, and in and out, 
By noon, and eve, and morning; 

With here and there a lusty shout 
Or whistle-call, for warning. 

And here and there my tinkling bell 
Gives notice where I travel, 

By wooded hill or ferny dell, 
Upon the golden gravel ; 

Past folk on foot who plod so slow ; 

Past boats upon the river ; 
For men may run, and men may row, 

But I ride on for ever. 

I steal by lawns and rustic cots 
And sweetly-scented meadows, 

I glide by deeply-wooded spots 
Among the verdant shadows. 

I loiter in the heat of noon 
And in the cooling showers, 

I linger 'neath the silv'ry moon 
Amid the fields and flowers. 

Upon my swift machine to go 

Is always my endeavour; 
For men may run, and men may row, 

But I ride on for ever. 



{{ 



CYCLING AS A* PASTIME. 59 

This sort of versification conveys — however feebly — an idea 
of the prevalent tone of the cyclist's thoughts ; it is not cycling 
for cycling's own sake, but for the sake of being able to glory 
in the ever-changing panorama that is being treadled by so 
pleasantly. One of the least romantic and most stoical men 
I ever met was impelled, by the influence of cycling, to pen 
verses which are worthy of Marlowe himself, on a pattern and 
with a theme which nobody would ever have expected to find 
associated with the initials of " C. F. S." Read them, and say 
whether there is not a musical swing about them which carries 
you away from the dull town and makes you dream of rural 
romance : — 

THE PASSIONATE CYCLIST TO HIS LOVE. 

Come ride with me and be my love, 
And I will all the pleasures prove 
Of saunt'ring in the shady lanes, 
Where golden-tinted Summer reigns ; 
And as our wheels revolve with speed, 
Fair Nature's beauties we can heed ; — 
If these to you delights will prove, 
Come ride with me and be my love. 

Your cheeks will glow with warmer grace, 
The rose will take the lily's place ; 
A brighter light will glad your eyes, 
Like dew that on the vi'let lies ; 
The quickened breath your bosom move 
As ocean when the breeze doth rove ; — 
If these to you delights will prove, 
Come ride with me, and be my love. 

And I will show you charming views, 
Where spreading oaks, and stately yews, 
And serried pines, that scent the air 
And make the heavens seem more fair, 



60 THE PLEASURES OE CYCLING. 

Look down upon the flowers beneath, 
Where roses and convolvus wreath ; — 
If these to you delights will prove, 
Come ride with me, and be my love. 

From where the sunlight bright doth lay, 
Shall come the scent of new-mown hay; 
The lark that sings within the corn, 
And blackbird warbling on the thorn, 
And sparkling waters of the stream 
Where lazy anglers wait and dream ; — 
If these to you delights will prove, 
Come ride with me, and be my love. 

And I will whisper in your ear 
The tale that woman holds most dear ; 
Your hand in mine shall guide our way, 
Our road shall be where Love holds sway ; 
Love, that the roughest journey smoothes; 
Love, that the keenest sorrow soothes ; — 
If these to you delights will prove, 
Come ride with me, and be my love. 

I venture to say that there is no recreative outdoor exercise 
which awakens the finest feelings in our nature to such an 
extent as does cycling ; the mere act of riding being subordi- 
nate to the impressions formed by surrounding influences, such 
as have been touched upon by innumerable amateur poetasters, 
of whose productions the above are samples. 



; 




---Si. 






RACING -ROAD AND PATH. 




,-s^e-^- 



CHAPTER VI. 



CYCLE RACING. 



" T X 7HAT a fine day it is ! Let us go out and kill something." 
* Such, according to the foreign cynic, is the character- 
istic English sentiment ; but our sarcastic critic would have 
been nearer the mark had he said that the prevailing idea in the 
Britisher's head was expressed by some such phrase as "What 
a fine day it is ! Let us have a race." For, deplore it as the 
molly-coddling division may, and despise it as the stiff-starched 
weakling does, it is an undeniable fact that racing of one sort 
or another comes as naturally to the average Englishman as 
gossiping does to the average Englishwoman; and whether he 
be walking, or driving, boating, or on horseback, or pursuing 
any other form of locomotion, even down to the prosaic journey 
by rail, the idea of a race is sure to create an interest in his 
mind ; and in nothing is this more apparent than in cycling. 
The beginner, as soon as he can wobble along without assist- 
ance, essays to distinguish himself by passing another novice ; 



62 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

then he enjoys a calm degree of smug satisfaction when he can 
sail past a tramcar, or even a hansom cab ; later on his bosom 
swells with pride to discover that he can even leave behind him 
the galloping butcher's cart ; perhaps a sporting publican in a 
sulky, driving a fast-trotting horse, next has to succumb to the 
cyclist's superior pace ; and then, indeed, the full-blown wheel- 
man begins to think that he can move, and looks about him for 
fresh worlds to conquer. If he joins a good road-riding cyclists' 
club, he has opportunities of gauging his powers against other 
cyclists ; and it does not require much encouragement to lead 
an aspiring wheelman, of tolerably wiry physique, to the con- 
clusion that he is a born racing man ; he takes a practice- 
ticket for the nearest race-path, and " goes into training," with 
more or less success, according to his real abilities, judgment, 
and luck. 

It is obvious that short-distance racing on the high-road 
would be highly dangerous, on account not only of the risk to 
the riders from inequalities of the road and collision with 
vehicles, but also because the pace would be so great as to 
constitute a danger to foot passengers ; such racing is there- 
fore, very properly, rendered illegal by virtue of the provisions 
of the laws against " furious driving" on the highway; con- j 
sequently, all short-distance cycle races are held on enclosed 
tracks specially constructed for the purpose. These usually 
take, more or less, the form of an oblong, with rounded corners, 
the curves being ''banked up," or raised on their outer edges, 
to assist the cycles in turning them in safety. The surface 
is either of cinder or gravel, or a mixture of both, cunning 
combinations of cinder, gravel, cement, sand, shell, coal-dust, 
brick-dust, and similar materials being experimented on in 



CYCLE RACING. 63 

various cases, the object in all being to afford a firm, hard and 
smooth surface, not liable to get loose in dry, nor sodden 
in wet, weather. A first-class track for cycling must be used 
for no other purpose, even running or walking races being 
detrimental to the surface by reason of the spiked shoes worn 
by pedestrians ; and as there are such additional require- 
ments as railings, grand-stands, dressing and machine rooms, 
and outer fences and gates, to be provided, the cost of such 
tracks is very considerable. In the London district, the best 
track is that at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, which is almost 
circular in form, and with a mixed cinder, gravel, and coal-dust 
surface ; the next best is the Alexandra Park track, in form 
resembling the letter D, at Wood Green, a large three-lap- 
to-the-mile track formed of gravel, but with the drawback of 
a slope or " hill," scarcely perceptible to the eye of the incog- 
noscenti, but very appreciable to a racing cyclist. The Lillie 
Bridge and Stamford Bridge paths are good cinder tracks, 
but badly banked up, and consequently unsafe and slow. In 
the provinces, the path at Weston-super-Mare is perhaps the 
best in the kingdom, being formed of two straights and two 
semi-circular ends beautifully banked up, its drawback being 
that it is very much exposed to the sea winds. Almost every 
city of size in England possesses some sort of a cycling track, 
and in Scotland there are several second-rate paths. In 
Ireland, too, they have a magnificent track at Ball's Bridge, 
Dublin — the property of the Royal Dublin Society ; but for big 
things in the way of cycling tracks we must look to America, 
where a specially-built track of half-a-mile in circuit exists at 
Springfield, in the State of Massachusetts, a city boasting 
of a cycling club so enthusiastic in the promotion of cycle 



64 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

races as to have achieved world-wide notoriety. Here, every 
autumn, an immense three-days meeting takes place, at which 
British as well as American riders compete for valuable prizes, 
the Englishmen usually contriving, to carry off the lion's share 
thereof. At Lynn, too, there is an excellent track rivalling 
Springfield ; and all over America cycling paths of various 
calibre are being opened; but the sport is not at all so regular 
in any one district as it is in London, for although big meetings 
take place in the States, which attract enormous numbers of 
spectators, yet in London we have an uninterrupted series of 
Saturday afternoon meetings from May to September, it being 
no uncommon thing, indeed, for two or three meetings in the 
London district to clash. In America, on the other hand, 
travelling troupes of professional racing cyclists go about from 
place to place giving exhibition-races of the type which would 
be flouted in England as " unmitigated barneys." A very 
similar state of things prevails on the Continent, although 
there Ss probably less " hippodroming," and more honest riding 
for the money prizes freely offered in the French country- 
towns. " Amateurism " is a dead letter in France, but in 
Germany, Holland, and some other European countries, as 
well as in the British Isles, America, and Australia, the bulk 
of the race-meetings are promoted by amateur clubs, and are 
open mainly to amateur riders only — riders, that is, who are 
engaged in business, and only race on cycles for amusement ; 
although the natural cupidity of the human race makes it a 
difficult task, at times, to draw a line between a man who 
races as an amateur, and one who, whilst ostensibly an 
amateur, is secretly a professional, making money by the 
sport which he is supposed to participate in for love. 



CYCLE RACING. 



65 



For racing purposes, specially constructed bicycles and 
tricycles are used. These are identical in design with the 
ordinary roadsters, but they have no brakes to check the 
momentum, and their every part is made as light as possible, 
the thinnest gauge of steel tube being used ; with very fine 




THE RACING BICYCLE OF 1886. 



spokes ; the lightest of bearings and forgings ; and, in fact, 
with their every part reduced in weight as far as is consistent 
with the s^-ongth requisite to withstand the strains^of racing 
on smooth and level paths. Such machines, of course, would 
soon go to pieces if used on rough roads, and even on the path 



66 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

their life is but short ; yet, when we look at the immense strain 
put upon a bicycle or tricycle by a powerful athlete, it is truly 
astonishing that they can be made so light and yet so strong. 

Speaking from an experience of nine years on the racing 
path — that is to say, nine years during all of which I have 
raced occasionally — I may say that our English racing cyclists 
decidedly overdo it. There is a fascination about racing which 
leads young men to train month after month, to the utter exclu- 
sion of all other forms of recreation and leisurely enjoyment, 
so that friends are neglected and lost, opportunities for mental 
and physical pleasures and benefits are wasted, and years of 
the halcyon period of life are frittered away, in pursuit of 
11 honour, glory, and pots" — as it has been hyperbolically satir- 
ised — by means of cycle racing. In this connection, I rather 
think that the Americans have the advantage over us, inasmuch 
as their races do not attract average young men to the path for 
more than a few weeks at a time ; but in London and other 
racing centres of England it is one continuous uneasy round of 
training and racing in handicaps and scratch races from spring 
to autumn, and many worthy young men allow their love for the 
path to cast into the shade everything else, even the business of 
daily life being more or less subservient to the requirements of 
"training" — that mysterious' fetish which should mean what it 
literally expresses, viz. — a training of the body to a healthy 
and strong condition, but which usually indicates a rather 
unreasoning system of hard riding round and round the same 
monotonous track, with a Spartan but somewhat unscientific 
system of diet, and an absurd dread of road-riding, for plea- 
sure, for fear it should spoil " racing form." Far better is it 
to devote a short period of each year to racing, and then to go 



CYCLE RACING. 67 

on the road and thoroughly enjoy the possession of the riding 
powers which such racing has developed. So convinced of this 
have I been for several years past, that I have never undergone 
a regular season of racing, but all of such success as I have 
attained has been the result of a few weeks' path-training at a 
time, followed by rational and really pleasurable excursions by 
road ; and when I was a young man the poetic fire within me 
impelled me even to impress the stirring metre of Hood into 
my service towards emphasizing what I have been saying. 
Vide infra : — 

THE SONG OF THE SPURT. 

With limbs all weary and worn, 

With jaded and aching back, 
A bicyclist rode, in his flannels and shoes, 

Racing around a track — 
Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

Though muscles are strained and hurt, 
And still with a voice in which glee was dead 

He sang the " Song of the Spurt." 

" Train ! train ! train ! 

Throughout the livelong day; 
And train ! train ! train ! 

After Sol's departed ray. 
It's all to win a pot 

That I train from dawn till dark, 
And train I will, if I win or not 

From the scratch or limit mark. 

" Train ! train ! train ! 

From the early matutinal tub ; 
And train ! train ! train ! 

With the same eternal grub ; 
Beef, and mutton, and bread, 

Bread, and mutton, and beef, 
Till the changeless fare upon which I am led 

Makes me long for a slight relief. 



68 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



" Oh ! men, with sweethearts dear ! 

Oh ! men, who look at the race ! 
You lean on the rails, and applaud the heats 

That are done at the fastest pace. 
Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

Though the sinews are strained and hurt, 
For a halo of so-called glory is shed 

Upon the successful spurt. 

But why do I train so hard ? 

And why am I not alone ? 
What makes such numbers of others train 

On bicycles like my own ? 



ammm 




On bicycles like my own, 

Because of identical make, 
And we have the hardest, swiftest rides 

That flesh and blood can take. 



" Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

My treading never flags ; 
And what's the reward ? — an occasional win, 

And a challenge to 'do my dags,' 
That shattered machine and this tattoed scar- 

A cropper — a broken arm — 
And a month of pain ere once again 

I begin to get into form. 



CYCLE RACING. 69 

" Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

From second to second of time, 
Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

As prisoners tread for crime. 
Skin, and muscle, and bone, 

Bone, and muscle, and skin, 
To keep myself for this racing fit, 

I must be gaunt and thin. 

" Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

Round the track in the pelting rain, 
And tread ! tread ! tread ! 

When the weather is fine again. 
While down yon country road 

The touring cyclists glide, 
With luggage strapped behind their wheels, 

Bound for a rural ride. 

" Oh ! but to breathe the breath 

Of the heather and thorn and briar, 
With the sky above my head, 

And the gravel beneath my tyre, 
For only one short day 

To feel as I used to feel, 
Before I the racing-mania caught 

And took to the slender wheel. 

" But why should I not escape ? 

Why but for one short day ? 
Why throwing away the best years of my life 

In this dreary monotonous way ? 
A little touring would bring more health 

And pleasure than any cup ; 
So, as to training for handicaps — 

Henceforth I give that up !" 

No longer weary and worn, 

But ruddy and healthily red, 
A bicyclist over the hills and dales 

Merrily, cheerily sped. 
Tread ! tread ! tread ! 

Ever upon the alert 
For scenery fresh, in unbeaten tracks — 
Would that its tones could reach our cracks ; — • 

He sang this " Song of the Spurt!" 




CHAPTER VII. 



CURIOSITIES OF CYCLING. 



' / T V IS a mad wheel world, my masters, and the dweller in 
•*■ Cyclonia meets with many strange developments in both 
men and machines. In the latter respect, curiosities are 
becoming less plentiful than when the principles of construc- 
tion were not so widely understood ; but even now a year 
never passes without some extraordinary monstrosity being 
launched upon the market, which its sanguine inventor is 
certain will revolutionise the cycling trade, but which is des-» 
tined to fizzle out through some unforeseen defect preventing 
its equalling the performance of the common or roadster cycle. 
The idea of propelling a tricycle by a rowing motion of the 
arms has always had its adherents ; but, except for cripples 
who have lost the use of their legs, rowing tricycles are 
obsolete. Some wondrously original and delightfully ingenious 
— yet withal mechanically bad and practically useless — ideas 




LiFFE i SON LITMO COVENTRY » jONDON. 



TRICK RIDING. 



CURIOSITIES OF CYCLING. 



71 



have been patented, and the records of the United States 
patent-office in particular contain a most diverting number 
of illustrated inventions for complicated pieces of mechanism, 
before which the human mind must stand in respectful amaze- 
ment. But there are curiosities in cycles of a legitimate and 
valuable nature, not the least of which is the vehicle called 
"The Coventry Chair," which consists of a comfortably-padded 
basket-chair mounted by means of luxurious springs on a 




THE "COVENTRY CHAIR. 



tricycle, so that it can be propelled at quite a respectable 
pace by an ordinary rider ; for invalids or elderly people this 
is a most useful vehicle combining the comfort of the Bath 
Chair with the speed of a cab. 

Of curiosities in men, perhaps the most curious is a pro- 
fessional bicyclist named West, whose right leg has been 
amputated high above the knee ; this man mounts and rides 



72 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

a tall bicycle, with his one leg, at an astonishing pace, and 
has won prizes in good company without any very abnormally 
long start. Among the amateurs, there are hunch-backed men, 
club-footed men, one-armed men, and men whose legs are 
useless for walking purposes, all of whom find the mechanism 
of the bicycle or the tricycle available in overcoming their 
physical infirmities. Instances are frequent, too, of deaf-and- 
dumb riders cycling without experiencing any inconvenience 
or danger ; and the present writer has never met with any 
mishap — although frequently riding through the busiest parts 
of London — attributable in any way to deafness. 

Amongst the curiosities I must set down the " trick-riders " 
as they are called ; men who display marvellous skill in per- 
forming acrobatic feats on bicycles. This class commenced 
to exist in the " boneshaker " era; but it was left for the 
Americans in 1885-6 to develop trick-riding to a pitch o r 
perfection which would be voted impossible had it not been 
seen with our own eyes. Nick Kaufmann, Dan Canary, and 
McAnney are the three most noted men in this department 
of acrobatics. These men will take the ordinary bicycle and 
ride on it in every conceivable position ; will bring it to a 
standstill and balance themselves on top of it ; will climb 
over and over it in a fashion which would be clever if half-a- 
dozen men were holding it steady, and is therefore marvellous 
considering that it is all the time being balanced on end by 
the performer. Then they will take off the backbone and 
back-wheel, and ride the single wheel ; then the fork and 
handles are removed, and the single wheel is still ridden round 
and about ; lastly, off come the cranks and pedals, and the 
performer stands on the short ends of the axle, and, balancing 



CURIOSITIES OF CYCLING 

73 

thus rides around by pushing the wheel with his hands. On 
he American Star" bicycle-a machine which looks like 
the ordinary bicycle turned backwards, steered by the small 
wheel-McAnney will perform all manner of gymnastic evolu- 
turns ; and he, with Kaufmann, will play a mimic game of polo 
a large india-rubber ball being knocked about by rapidly-made' 
side-jerks of the front wheel. 7 apmij made 

Long-distance riding is most popular among amateur cyclists 
in England twenty-four hours' journeys being, perhaps, more 
preferred than any other form of cycling feat. Longdistance 
nding as such, first came prominently into notice at the time 
when W eston temporarily popularised six-days' walking matches • 
and several races between professional bicyclists were ridden 
at the Agricultural Hall, London, at Derby, and elsewhere, 
G. Waller being credited with riding M oo miles in six days 
at the former place, and S. Rawson, of Derby, being reported 
to have gone 1,500 miles in the same period. All these were 
mere show performances, done on board tracks indoors • but 
more genuine cycling performances have been credited to 
amateur riders whose favourite course is from the Land's End 
(the southern extremity of England) to John-o'-Groafs (the 
northernmost point of Scotland) ; Mr. G. P. Mills of Liver 
pool ; Mr. James Lennox, of Dumfries ; and the Honourable 
Ion G. N. Keith-Falconer, of Cambridge University, being 
the chief performers on bicycles ; and Mr. G. P. Mills of 
Liverpool, also holding the record for the fastest ride on a 
tricycle. This long journey is, of course, too ambitious a 
task for most riders ; but a large number of clubs promote 
twenty-four hours' riding among their members by offering 
prize medals to such as ride stated distances; and it is a 



74 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



common practice during the summer and autumn for cyclists 
to start on the stroke of midnight and ride until the stroke 
of the next midnight. The longest authenticated ride of 
this description is credited to Mr. G. P. Mills, of Liverpool, 
who covered 262 miles on a bicycle, and to Mr. A. H. Fletcher, 
also of Liverpool, whose record is 250 miles on a tricycle. 




1 




lift t$0*. HTxOt COVlHTKYt LONHOM 



RUSTIC RIVALS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



A CHARMING TANDEM SPIN. 



HPHE Pleasures of Cycling, quotha ! My good Sir — or my 
-*■ dear Madam, if 1 am fortunate enough to have a lady 
reader — you can have no adequate conception of the genuine 
pleasure experienced during a cycling trip until you come to 
participate in it yourself. Prithee, then, procure a tricycle 
upon which to commence gentle exercise ; attempt not to do 
more than a mile the first day, five miles the second, and the 
same the third. This is just to accustom your limbs to the- 
motion, and to enable you to keep your feet on the pedals 
when I invite you to occupy the front seat of my tandem, I 
undertaking to do all the hard "shoving" while you let your 
feet be carried round with the pedals, applying perhaps the 
gentlest imaginable pressure on the descending pedal, and 
raising your feet each time so as not to " back-treadle." 

Excepting up hills, I can very easily keep the tandem 
running at a good steady pace ; and you may rest your feet 
entirely on the foot-rest provided for the purpose, whenever 
we descend' a slight gradient, in which case you will notice 
that the speed increases to a velocity of between twelve and 
twenty-five miles an hour, according to the steepness of the 
declivity. I have adjusted your saddle to suit your height, 
and your handles are in a comfortable position ; be sure you 
do not attempt to work hard, on this your initial journey, and 
I can promise you a treat. So ! Now we are bowling 



76 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

along the suburban roads, and shall soon be beyond the 
bricks and mortar of London. Do not be scared at the way 
in which I whizz the tandem round the corners ; but sit 
steady and study your pedal action. This is nicely. 

Now we are passing the Archway Tavern, and in front 
of us rises a tolerably stiff hill — do not attempt to spurt up 
it, but keep steadily at work — so — and we draw nearer and 
nearer to the tall Archway. Now we are there, and on a bit 
of level. The road is of rough macadam, but hard, and free 
from loose stones, and the tandem goes steadily on. There 
are several other little hills to climb ere we begin to pant up 
the long rise into Barnet. This old town is at an elevation 
above the sea level higher than any other within its distance 
of London, they say ; and we have earned a rest and a drink 
at the Old Salisbury Arms, an old coaching house whose 
decaying prosperity has quite revived under the patronage of 
the ubiquitous wheelman. 

Leaving Barnet behind, we find the road surfaces improving 
a little, and after bumping and rattling through the loose flints 
which invariably bestrew the road between Potter's Bar and 
Bell Bar we bowl into Hatfield, where the road passes between 
the railway station on one hand and the ornamental iron gates 
of Lord Salisbury's park on the other. Now comes some 
splendidly smooth running, and we are soon at the foot of 
Digswell Hill, which is a long pull of more than a mile in 
length. At the summit we feel that our exertions can best 
be followed by a dip of our pocket cup under the pump. Ah ! 
that is cool and refreshing, is it not ? Feel hot ? Well, to 
be sure, the day is getting warm ; but it is a wholesome and 
invigorating sensation of intoxicating luxury with which, feet 



A CHARMING TANDEM SPIN. 77 

upon foot-rests and brake off, we rush pele-mele down the slope 
towards Welwyn. Between tall groves of trees the road winds 
its way, a scent of woods and wild flowers borne upon the 
air which rushes at us as we " coast" this hill. Here we 
approach the valley, and a careful application of the brake 
ensures us a safe descent of the last steep pitch ere we twist 
to the left, and right through the village of Welwyn. As we 
have now come twenty-five miles, and this is your first journey, 
we had better stop for a few minutes here. Yon do not feel 
tired. No doubt, but I don't intend that you shall become 
jaded further on, so please dismount here, and we will discuss 
a little luncheon at the Wellington Inn. 

Welwyn is not a remarkably peculiar village ; or town, I 
suppose it would call itself. Like many another village, its 
glory departed with the stage-coach, and nowadays the railway 
is quite a mile away, and there is nothing particularly attractive 
to bring people here. Let us pass on, and over an undulating 
road of good gravel surface we pursue our way, through some 
tolerably pretty diversified scenery, towards Hitchin. Here, 
on our right, is a fine old park, nothing less celebrated, indeed, 
than the late Lord Lytton's seat, " Knebworth." Through 
the closed gates we can perceive the tower of the lodge, and 
under an archway a charming vista of foliage receding into dim 
distance. 

Hitchin is a fine prosperous old market town, and forms 
a splendid seat of operations for the cyclist who — being more 
pressed for time than we are to-day — prefers to whirl down 
from London by the swift trains on the Great Northern Rail- 
way, bringing his cycle in the guard's van, and thus starting 
at once on good roads well away from the City's smoke. 



78 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

Round one of the corners — going towards the railway station — 
is a queer row of gnarled box trees, leaning over the footpath 
at an astonishing angle. You never saw anything like that. 
No, probably not, but the observant cyclist comes to notice 
and find out all the unusual little features of places he visits, 
and this is a minor one of them. Turning back, we pass a 
picturesque house overgrown with creepers, right in the main 
street ; and now we turn north again up a slight rise, and are 
on a superb stretch of smooth and level road, which continues 
for eleven miles without a hill, clear into Biggleswade, and 
thence for another thirty-one miles, with only three hills, to 
Norman Cross, just the same smooth surface being maintained 
almost every mile of the way. This is the famous Great North 
Road, upon which the long-distance racing men and twenty- 
four hours record-breakers are wont to perform their exploits. 
Just to-day we are only bound as far as Biggleswade ; and, 
accordingly, turning to the right at Henlow crossing, we travel 
at an easy eleven-miles-an-hour pace. Here, you will notice, 
just ahead of us, the road abruptly turns sharp to the right, 
and on the other side of the curve there is a very deep ditch, 
the banks of which are plentifully overgrown with brambles, 
nettles, and such uncomfortable vegetation. One foggy night 
this spot was the scene of the only tricycle accident I ever 
met with on the road. It happened that I had started from 
Barnet at midnight for a twenty-four hours spin, and so dense 
was the fog that I could only steer my way at times by the 
light thrown by my lamp upon the extreme verge of the road, 
where the dark grass and the light gravel meet. All went well 
until I came to this sharp curve, when that farm gate which 
you see at the corner, with its cart track, deceived me, and 



A CHARMING TANDEM SPIN. 79 

in a moment I had run off the road, and was plunging down 
the grassy bank to be landed amongst the nettles, with my 
head entangled in the hedge, and my legs mixed up with my 
tricycle. As soon as I had satisfied myself that an earthquake 
had not happened, I contrived to extricate myself from the 
vegetable and mineral trap in which I was caught, and some- 
how groped my way up the bank and dragged my machine 
out. Beyond a bent frame and a few slight scratches from 
the brambles no harm was done, and a walk of three miles 
brought me to Biggleswade, where the damaged tricycle was 
speedily repaired. Such an accident as that could only happen 
to a well-regulated tricyclist under the same circumstances of 
an impenetrable fog obscuring the roadway. 

While I have been narrating this little adventure, you have 
noticed that we have passed over the river Ivel, you have 
bestowed a silent gaze of admiration upon the tall poplars that 
stand sentinel at the bridge, and as we have passed through the 
village of Langford you have noticed the pleasant little "bits" 
here and there. This avenue, through which we now treadle, is 
scarcely noticed, I fear, by the bulk of the fast-riding enthu- 
siasts ; all they think of is how jolly smooth and level the road 
is, and so there they go, with heads down, piling in every ounce 
of muscular power they possess, eager only to reach Biggles- 
wade for dinner. 

And here we are, too. A large, but not very attractive town, 
with good surfaces even to its main street. The big hotel is 
called the Swan ; but cyclists invariably put up at the Ongley 
Arms — an extremely diminutive little inn at the further end of 
the town, where the anxiety of the host to meet the wants of 
the cyclist compensates for any rough-and-readiness in the 



80 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

somewhat primitive arrangements to such a degree that the 
Bohemian cyclist vastly prefers " Dan Albone's shanty" to the 
formality of the big hotels. 

You are not tired, I can see, yet you have covered forty-five 
miles this morning ; and although it is true that I have been 
doing the major portion of the work on our tandem, it is also 
the fact that my exertions have been little, if at all, greater 
than they would have been had I ridden a single tricycle by 
myself, so superior is the tandem in ease of travelling. 

An hour or more may be spent here ere we make a start 
for Warden and Ickwell. Where are they ? My good Sir — 
or my dear Madam, as the case may be — when I offered you 
a seat on my tandem I did not intend that you should be 
brought all this way from town for the sake of passing through 
such comparatively uninteresting places as those we have seen. 
Warden and Ickwell enjoy the reputation of being the two 
prettiest villages in England ; they are situated close together, 
within four miles of the main North Road, but I doubt whether 
one person in a thousand who lives within fifty miles of the spot 
ever heard of them. Folks in London visit the sea coast at 
Margate, Ramsgate, Brighton, and other adjacent spots ; they 
travel to Dorking, Richmond, Maidenhead, and such hackneyed 
places of inland resort time after time ; but it is the cyclist 
alone who has the power to ferret .out delightful little nooks 
such as Warden and Ickwell, and the cyclist alone acquires 
the habit of noting every fresh scene of beauty he happens 
across, and of communicating its whereabouts to other cyclists. 
Who, for instance, that is not a cyclist, ever visits the Silent 
Pool in Surrey, just off the Guildford road ? How few of those 
who habitually take train or horse out of town to familiar spots 



A CHARMING TANDEM SPIN. 81 

have any idea of the hordes of quiet little nooks hiding away 
in every corner, such as Blackwater, not far from the hackneyed 
Virginia Water; or Ruislip, near Harrow; or Shenley, near 
Barnet ; or Essendon, in the lanes between Enfield and Hat- 
field ; or South Weald, near Romford ; or Lambourne End, 
with its beautiful woods and a view of thirty miles of valley. 
The cyclist makes a note of hundreds of such places, each 
within an easy day's ride, wherever he happens to live ; and 
he can wander around bye-lanes in search of fresh beauties 
without any dread of going too far to be able to return com- 
fortably. Just now, our wanderings will only extend, if you 
please, as far as Warden and Ickwell ; and lest the contempla- 
tion of the beauties of these villages should be sicklied o'er 
with the pale cast of thought regarding the possibilities of you 
— my friend the novice — riding the fifty miles back to London, 
to-day, I will explain that it is my intention to take the train 
home, in order that you may finish the day in comfort, just 
a wee bit tired, no doubt, but not exhausted. 

Leaving Biggleswade, we turn over the bridge that spans 
the Ivel here, and notice that the main road curves to the right ; 
a magnificent stretch of broad gravel, is it not ? We twist 
down this lane on- the left, and leisurely pedal between smiling 
fields of sweet scented clover and bright blossomed turnip. The 
horizon is shut out by pleasant bits of woodland and coppice ; 
and if we were rather late in the evening, the glories of a blood- 
red or golden sunset would light up these trees in a fairyland 
manner, delighting the beholder beyond expression as he 
advances over the smooth and level gravel, and, at each revolu- 
tion of his pedals, sees the contour of the landscape shifting 
and changing in charming undulations as the dark green foliage 



82 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

of the trees stands out in sharp relief against the fiery glare of 
the sunset. Here we turn a corner, and come to the only hill 
on the road ; it is a trifle steep, but not long, and we can ride it 
without excessive exertion. Arrived at its summit, let us ease 
up — or slow down, if that expression conveys the meaning 
better — and prepare for a feast of the vision. The road up 
here is raised above the park which you can see — over the low 
hedge — on our left ; and yonder, on the top of that wooded hill, 
peeps out the white towers of Warden Castle, the seat of Major 
Shuttleworth. It is as pretty a bit of landscape as you can 
desire, although the British atmosphere is, I am afraid, not 
clear enough to enable me to unlimber the camera which I 
carry behind the tricycle and secure a photograph of it, except 
on an exceptionally clear day. Here the scene is shut out of 
view by the hedge becoming taller, and as we pass an entrance 
gate to the park our eyes are delighted by a wealth of green 
leaves and variegated blossoms. We are approaching the 
village of Warden, and everything is beautiful. Thanks to the 
taste of former and present owners of Warden Castle and 
village, there is beauty in everything around ; the hedges are 
cunningly planted with flowering shrubs in profuse variety ; the 
very pumps are of ornamental oaken build and ensconced in 
sweet little wooden arbours ; the cottages — but wait ! Here we 
are descending a gentle declivity, and now — stop and feast your 
eyes on the scene before you. Towering straight in front is a 
steep and high bank, completely smothered by all manner ot 
gloriously variegated trees of such grand shape and foliage that 
the gazer can only stop and drink in the scene. On the left is 
the main gateway, leading into the Park and Castle ; crowning 
the summit of the bank in front is a dense fir-wood ; on our 



A CHARMING TANDEM SPIN. 83 

right is one straight street — Old Warden village — consisting of 
a smooth gravel roadway bounded by trimly-turfed banks and 
ornamental hedges, with high flowering bushes everywhere, and 
with detached cottages half hidden amongst the vegetation. 
And such cottages they are, too ! Scarcely two are alike, but 
each one is built in elaborately ornamental rustic style, with 
some distinguishing feature of its own. Here, an iron pump in 
a rustic arbour ; there, a well — yclept Jacob's Well — with a tall, 
carved oaken beam supporting its wheel ; the very inn — the 
Hare and Hounds — looks more like a retired tradesman's 
country cottage than a public-house; further down,. the double 
line of unique cottages continues, their thatched roofs and 
quaint gables, low doorways, latticed windows, and indescrib- 
able little rustic peculiarities, giving a charm to the whole 
scene. We have ridden through, and at the lodge on the left, 
where the road divides, we turn round, and retrace our tracks 
to the inn. 

Dismounting, and stabling our tandem, we can stroll into 
a diminutive rose garden, where a summer-house embowered 
in a wealth of flowering creepers vies in its attractiveness with 
an old open seat, in front of which is a bench which will serve 
as our tea-table. And here we can loll to the music of trees, 
with standard roses in rich profusion all around us, and listen 
while our' host, in reply to enquiries, tells of the wonders of 
a Swiss garden, which is only opened to favoured visitors, in 
the Major's park ; of the dense fir-wood upon the hill behind 
us, the path through which is freely used by the public ; and of 
the dismantled old abbey a couple of miles away, which stands 
solitary and gloomy in a field a furlong off the road, turning 
its back upon the w^rld, and only redeemed from a general 



fc 4 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

barn-like aspect by virtue of its high chimney, although the 
visitor who walks across the field can see that its front — facing 
nothing but a broad expanse of meadow-land — is in a very 
good state of architectural preservation. 

Remounting our tandem, we regretfully turn our backs upon 
Old Warden, and retrace our tracks for a short distance. But 
a darkly-shadowed lane on our left fetches us off, and we leave 
the tricycle to take care of itself while we pace up this steep 
lane and find ourselves in the village churchyard. The church 
is, of course, in keeping with the rest of the village, although 
the creepers which overgrow its tower — encouraged as they are 
to climb by means of iron rods let into the stonework — are 
rather too luxuriant in their unrestrained growth, and com- 
pletely obscure the architecture. Tall bushes and trees assist 
in making the graveyard attractive ; but after the feast of 
vision which we have already indulged in, this spot is not so 
enticing as it would have been under other circumstances ; so 
we soon regain our tandem, tread our way up the rise, turn off 
to the left, and after another mile of gentle riding approach 
Ickwell. This is a fine old village, but on a different plan to 
Warden, and although year-in-and-year-out Warden holds 
pride of place for picturesque quaintness, there are people — 
cyclists, of course, for nobody save cyclists ever seems to come 
down here — who consider Ickwell the prettier of the two by 
virtue of its style being "less like a German box of toys." In the 
summer, at any rate, Ickwell is a lovely place, the village being 
in the form of a wide circle, completely surrounding a vast level 
green, in the midst of which a tall maypole uprears its head. 
Dotted over with cows, this green is a pleasing sight to the eye, 
and all around it, in an almost unbroken circle, stand magnifi- 



A CHARMING TANDEM SPIN. 85 

cent tall trees, whose line of continuity is scarcely broken by 
the cottages which nestle among the verdure. Cottages of true 
rustic build these are, yet not so elaborately ornamental as 
those in Warden ; but an artistic instinct has evidently guided 
the master of affairs here, and instead of the dirty and dull 
colours usually associated with country villages, we here see 
bright patches of white and dun and Indian red, walls and 
fences being picked out in these colours so as to form a striking 
relief to the dark and sombre colouring of the trees. Crossing 
the green by the direct road, we leave it at the extreme end, and 
after a short pedal through a lane come to Northill Church, an 
ordinary enough style of country church, with a pretty porched 
gateway — and just at its side the village inn, yclept the Crown, 
whose signpost is completely overgrown with ivy, which forms a 
vegetable case for the highly-gilt and ornamented crown that is 
ensconced in the place usually occupied by a painted board. 
" Home Brewed Ale " is the pride of this inn ; and as a good 
judge of alcoholic beverages assures me he never tasted better 
beer in his life, you had better call for a glass ; and then we 
will bid a farewell to the Crown, retrace our tracks to the green, 
and, turning off at a cross-road, soon find ourselves back in 
Biggleswade, whence one of the rapid trains on the Great 
Northern Railway whirls us back to town wholesomely and 
pleasantly tired with our day's ride, but not at all exhausted. 
We have had a day on the wheel which has enabled you, my 
friend the novice, to obtain an inkling into the delights of being 
able to cycle freely in whatever direction the whim of the 
moment may direct. When more accustomed to the exercise, 
you will be able to ride back in the cool of the evening, inde- 
pendent of railway trains; and by going about amongst cyclists, 



86 



THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



and reading cycling literature, you will discover many another 
such scene for unconventional excursions as that we have this 
day made to Warden and Ickwell. And so shall each year 
bring you many more of these pleasures of cycling. 





ISsH •■'*] 1 f 














tfjLJSaSrali 


» 




"OTIUM SINE UTERIS MORS EST." 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE LITERATURE OF CYCLING. 



"\ T 7ITH the exception of horse-racing, there is no sport or 
* * pastime extant which possesses such a great periodical 
literature as cycling ; and considering that the literature of 
horse-racing is mainly, if not exclusively, centred upon the 
betting interest, and therefore outside the province of pastimes, 
it may safely be said that cycling possesses a literature equal 
to all other outdoor pastimes put together. The reason for this 
has already been touched upon ; cycling is not only a sport, 
and not only a pastime, but it possesses so many features that 
the interests of the cycling sportsman, the cycling tourist, the 
cycling man of business, and the cycling inventor, ' are all 
catered for by the weekly, monthly, annual, and irregularly 
published newspapers or books which are now so profuse. 

The first periodical publication issued for cyclists was called 
" The Bicycle Rider's Magazine," but this enjoyed but a brief 



88 THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 

and puny existence, with such a small circulation, that copies 
are now at a premium as curiosities. Then followed The 
Bicycle Journal, a small weekly paper, which did not survive 
the year of its birth. Next came Bicycling News, a weekly 
newspaper, which is still one of the largest and most important, 
selling at a penny, and only rivalled by The Cyclist, which is 
recognised as the leading journal. Of monthlies, "Cycling" 
magazine lived for nearly four years, but " The Wheel World " 
supplanted it, and is now enjoying a vigorous popularity, its 
price being sixpence monthly. Of annuals we have seen " The 
Wheel World Annual," which ran through five editions, but 
was not published for 1886 ; its contents mainly consisted of 
a riding diary, and resumes of the past year's racing and 
general cycling events. "The Cyclist Christmas Number" 
had always been an amusing and entertaining volume, pub- 
lished in December each year, consisting of yarns, anecdotes 
and verse, mainly the production of amateur writers, until 
1884, when it took the form of a connected narrative bur- 
lesquing the cycling events of the year under the title of "Our 
Camp " ; this was followed in 1885 by a similar volume 
called " The Great S ," both books being profusely illus- 
trated in a style unapproached by any other publication. 
Indeed, cycling usually suffers severely when the hand of a 
non-cycling draughtsman essays to depict scenes wherein the 
spider wheel figures, ignorance of the structure of the machines 
leading the artists of even the best illustrated papers to make 
ridiculous blunders. In America, The Bicycling World is the 
senior and leading weekly paper, and The Wheelmen's Gazette 
is the monthly chronicle of cycling events. 

Of non-periodical publications there are many, various 



THE LITERATURE OF CYCLING. 89 

pamphlets purporting to teach the art of cycling appearing 
from time to time. Sturm ey's " Indispensable Handbooks ' 
are very complete compilations describing all the patterns of 
bicycles and tricycles in the market, and the same author's 
11 Guide to Bicycling" gives instruction of a practical nature 
to the beginner. " Health upon Wheels " is the title of a 
bcok in which Dr. Gordon Stables tells us a deal of interesting 
facts about the physical advantages of cycling rationally, and 
gives many valuable hints as to how to obtain the most benefit 
therefrom. " Tricycling for Ladies" is what its title implies, 
a guide to enable the fair sex to understand such details of 
tricycling as affect them particularly. "Training for Amateur 
Athletes" is the would-be racing-man's handbook; and for 
tourists there is an annual "Handbook" issued to members 
of the Cyclists' Touring Club. 




90 The pleasures of cycling. 



WHEELMAN'S SONG. 



Good morning, good Pedestrian — I'm glad to see you out ; 
The day is full of healthfulness — the birds are all about ; 
There is a quiet breeziness in all the pleasant air ; 
I hope this happy exercise may drive away our care. 

For I am a pedestrian — 

A very good pedestrian — 
And all the glowing benefit of walking I can share : 
Although I tread the atmosphere and do not touch the ground, 
I welcome you fraternally, wherever you are bound. 
But my impatient lady-love in yonder vale doth wait ; 
I wish you better company, and strike a swifter gait. 

ii. 

Good morning, good Equestrian — a noble steed you ride ; 
We do not seem to frighten him, so here is by your side. 
It is a feast of happiness to smoothly bound along, 
With sturdy muscles under you, and footing swiftly strong ! 

For I am an equestrian — 

A very fair equestrian — 
With bugle-blast of melody, and unassuming song : 
And all the thrilling ecstasy of horsemanship I feel, 
Although the steed I ride upon is bred of molten steel. 
But his impatience urges me to swifter time than you, 
And so I wish you pleasure, sir, and bid a kind adieu. 

in. 

Good morning, Mr. Racer — you've a trotter that is fine ; 
I never would disparage him, or say too much of mine. 
Your horse is full of metal, sir, and bravely takes his load ; 
It must be pure deliciousness to speed him on the road. 

For I am quite a racing man — 

A modest, humble racing man — 



WHEELMAN'S SONG. 91 



Though slight is my solicitude upon the tuff bestowed : 
But if you have an anxiousness to try a little race, 
I'll undertake, with courtesy, to give you second place; 
But if the first you win from me, and fairly it be earned, 
I'll hope, in near futurity, the tables may be turned. 

IV. 

Good morning, Mr. Carriageer — you have an easy ride : 
Those cushions are luxurious, and pleasantly you glide. 
'Tis very nice and fortunate, if one be tired or ill, 
To have a carriage to his call, and travel as he will. 

But I, sir, keep my carrriage, too — 

A very pleasant carriage, too — 
Though it is not the easy one that your desires would fill, 
It carries me in comfort over many a pleasant mile, 
And we who ride are satisfied completely with its style. 
So with a blithe economy establishments are run, 
With driver, footman, passenger, and horses all in one. 

v. 

Good morning, fellow-wheelmen — here's a warm fraternal hand, 
As, with a rush of victory, we sweep across the land ! 
If some may be dissatisfied to see the way we ride, 
We only wish their majesties could travel by our side ! 

For we are pure philanthropists — 

Unqualified philanthropists — 
And would not have this happiness to any one denied. 
We claim a great utility that daily must increase ; 
We claim from inactivity a sensible release ; 
A constant mental, physical, and moral help we feel, 
That bids us turn enthusiasts, and cry, " God bless the wheel ! " 

— Will Carleton. 



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Highest Award for Safety Bicycles, has been obtained by 




MESSRS. Stari.ey Bros. The Butts, Coventry, August 17th, 1886. 

Dear Sirs, — I have tried your new "PSYCHO" Safety Bicycle both on the racing path and road, and like 
it as well as any machine I have ever ridden. It is light, absolutely safe, and its capabilities for speed and 
hill-climbing are marvellous. Yours truly, 

S. GOLDER, Speedwell B.C. . 



MANUFACTURERS 



STJII^Ey BRPS-. SI- tJokn'5 Work}, COYENTRy^ 

21, HOLBORN VIADUCT, LONDON. 

TELEGRAPHIC Addresses— Coventry, "SALVO." London, " ROYAL SALVO." 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 



AIDS TO THE PLEASURES OF CYCLING. 



5, South Strwwt, Exeter, July 29th, 1886. 
I can speak in the highest praise of " Thilum." On Sunday last I took a 30 miles tramp on Dartmoor, and 
being caught in the rain when too late to retrace my steps, had to walk for several hours in a regular down- 
pour, getting extremely wet about the lower limbs. The result of this was an excessive stiffness of the legs 
and very sore feet, so much so that I could scarcely walk on Monday. This was most unfortunate, as our 
Clnb 25 Miles Road Handicap, for which I was entered, was to be run on yesterday (Wednesday). I gave 
myself a good rubbing with " Thilum" two or tbree times both on Monday and Tuesday, competed in the 
handicap on Wednesday, and landed home a winner by two minutes, riding the 25 miles on a tricycle in the 
good time of lh. 48m , so that you see " Thilum " took all the stiffness and soreness out of me. 

W. H. CASLEY. 



When we praise a good thing— whether it be a patent cycle or a proprietary medicine, or any other article 
— we do so not merely for the sake of pleasing our advertisers, but because our readers are benefited by the 
knowledge which wo impart. Some of our readers have spoken rather sarcastically about our having — in 
common with others who have tried and found its merits— praised the ointment called " Thilum," but this 
does not alter our conviction that we are writing more to the advantage of our readers at large than of Mr. 
Bowden ; and it gives us genuine pleasure to say that we have proven to our complete satisfaction that the 
more powerful preparation of the same drugs, called " Hippacea," is the most wonderfully efficacious remedy 
for sprains that we have ever heard of. Visitors to the Surrey races, a few weeks ago, will recollect i hat A. 
J. Wilson rode in the half-mile tricycle race with his right wrist bandaged. He had sprained it a fortnight 
beforehand, and such remedies as cold water, arnica, Elliman's embrocation, and even "Thilum' itself, had 
been perseveringly used in vain; but seeing by The Cyclist that " Hippacea " was a strong preparation, he 
sent for some, and completely cured his wrist in three days. After this, a sprained wrist or ankle neednot be 
a matter of such great moment to cyclists as heretofore.— Bicycling News, May 7th, 1883. 

15, Berkley Street, Liverpool, July 20th, 1880. 
I found your " Hippacea " of great value on my recent ride from Land's End to John-o'-Groat's. The first 
time it was applied I was simply astonished at the effect. It removes any stiffness instantly, anl 1 shall 
recommend it to all my friends as the very best thing of its kind that has ever been invented. 

G. P. MILLS, Anfield B.C , holder of the bicycle and tricycle Land's End to John o'-Groat's record. 

11, Clytha. Crescent, Newport, Mon., May 5th, 1886. 
I have been suffering with a weak knee for over eighteen months, and tried everything to cure it, although 
I have been told by seven doctors I should never get over it. and of course could not ride at all last season. 
I commenced using " Hippacea" on Sunday, and on the Friday following rode over 12 miles, taking all the 
hills as I used to, and I am happy to say ivith no ill effect to the knee. I have not used the whole box yet, 
and will send for more, as I shall never be without it. You may rely on my recommending it everywhere. 

A. H. TOWNSEND. 
Mr. Townsend writes again, 14th May, as follows :— 
Please send me per return another 2s. 6d. tin of " Hippacea." This I want for another sufferer. My knee, 
I am glad to say, still keepz strong. 

Beckenham, October 12th, 1885. 
I find " Thilum " so far superior to the embrocations in general use by cyclists and athletes that in future 
I shall use nothing else. The speedy way in which " Thilum " removes stiffness, shm-ache, etc., and the small 
quantity that is necessary to be used is truly astonishing. Please send me six boxes. 

A. P. ENGLEHEART, Croydon Cycling Club. 



Royal Aquarium, London, March 29th, 1886. 
I know nothing that meets the wheelman's wants so thoroughly as your 'Thilum " does. 

N. E. KAUFMAN, Champion Unicycle and Trick Rider. 



Royal Aquarium, London, November 19th, 1885. 
I have used your Great Indian Remedy, " Thiium," for a flesh wound, and can most heartily recommend it 
to all wheelmen. DAN J. CANARY, Champion Fancy and Trick Bicyclist of the World. 



''Thilum" and " Hippacea" are unrivalled cures for Chilblains (broken or un- 
broken), Wasp and Bee Stings, Gnat and Midge Bites, etc. 

" THILUM " post free for Is. 3d., 2s. 5d., and 4s. 9d. per tin. 
"HIPPACEA" post free for Is. 8d., 2s. 9d., 5s. 3d., and 10s. 6d. per tin. 



F . H. BOWDEN, 

MADRAS, INDIA, and 43, KING WILLIAM STREET, LONDON, E.C. 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 



REP 



BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO PHOTOGRAPHY, M-. 

An elementary work of instruction, free from abstruse technicalities, by "A Fellow 

of the Chemical Society." 

A. S. PLATTS, Esq., has kindly added a special Article and Tables on "EXPOSURE." 



ESTABLISHED 1852. 



PERKEN, SON I RAYMENT 



(Late LEJEUNE & PERKEN). 



Sole Bight of Manufacturing 

PATENT (Optimus) BOOK 
CAMERA. Made in the 
shape of a book. Unsur- 
passed for detective work. 

PATENT (Durnford's) RIGHT 
ABOUT TURN SHUTTER. 

PATENT (Dornford's) BE- 
TWEEN LENS DROP 
SHUTTER. 

PATENT (Rayment's) EXTRA 
LONG FOCUS CAMERA. 
Light. Portable. Rigid. 
Every Modern Adjustment. 
No Loose Parts. 




for the Trade only ; 

PATENT fStanbury's) 
ECLIPSE RUBY TENT. 
Non-v:tinic. 

PATENT (3581) ROLL HOLD- 
ER. For films on paper. 

PATENT (Redding's) RUBY 
LAMP, For the Dark Room. 

PATENT (Rayment's) TRIPOD 
TOP. 

PATENT (Optimus) DISSOLV- 
ING LANTERN. 

PATENT (Marshall's) PHOTO- 
GRAPHIC SHUTTER. 



Lerjses, Cameras, photographic Apparatus for Enlarging, etc. 





MAGIC LANTERNS, SLIDES, GAS BAGS, JETS, AND ACCESSORIES. 



101, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON E.G. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE, 



A D VE R TISE ME N TS 



The Perfection of a Mount, 



THE 
II 



WHIPPET'' SAFETY 




"With Patented Spring France. 
PERFECTLY FREE FROM VIBRATION. 



THE FASTEST MACHINE IN TRE WORL?D ON ROUGH ROADS, 

WITHOUT LOSS ON* SMOOTH ONES OR UPHILL. 

The " Whippet " is capable of making a speed on roads that no 
other machine will stand, and is, consequently, the most durable cycle 
made. The absence of vibration makes the " Whippet" the easiest 
machine to propel. Workmanship guaranteed of the highest class. 



TO BE SEEN AND TRIED AT 



LIN LEY & BIGGS'S 

Mount Ifaw, E&5f Ro&J, cy\j I^o&d, London. 



AD VERTISEMENTS. 



NEW PATTERNS 



FOR 1887. 




35 

< 

z: 

iu 
o 



ttJ 
X 

1- 



Is constructed on the very best principle to secure steadiness of steering and pedal action, essentials which are 
indispensable in this type of machine. The weak points, which experience has developed in other make-, 
of this type, have in this been carefully eliminated. It is already pronounced to be one of the best con- 
structed single-chain safeties in the market. 



> 

CD 

m 




In lightness and compactness this machine is far ahead of any tricycle at present introduced. It is fitted 

with a large pilot wheel, with the direct steering action now becoming so popular, and a very powerful brake. 

Experts who have tried it pronounce it to be "the steadiest and easiest goer they have ever mounted." 



SOI.K MANUFACTURERS : 



THE CENTAUR CYCLE CO., COVENTRY. 

Descriptive Catalogues free on application. 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 





FF? W. T. HOWLETT 

THE CYCLISTS' HATTER, 

^ 57, Constitution Hill, Birmingham, 

-j} Has always in Stock a good supply of Cyclists' Head Gear of 
* every description, including his 

-CELEBRATED REGISTERED WHEEL HELMET.- 

o>«Tt* fc ps — Send stamp for Price List and Testimonials. 

EVERY SATURDAY, Id. EVERY SATURDAY, Id. 



BICYCLING • NEWS , 

THE CYCLISTS' ILLUSTRATED PAPER, 

AND TRICY CLING GAZETTE. -« 

THESE ARE FACTS:— 

1^ Bicycling News is the only Cyclists' Illustrated Paper. 

IW It can be obtained at all bookstalls, 

*W Or post free for six months, 2s. 9d. 

IW" It is full of useful information about roads and 

machines. 
PP" It is the! best paper for provincial readers. 
&W" Advice free on any points. 
IW" The oldest and most go-ahead of all cycling papers. 

SEND FOR FREE SPECIMEN COPY. 

tmf manapfp ( " BICYCLING NEWS," 98, FLEET ST., 
THE JYIAJXAOEK, { OR i< B i C y CL i WG flEWS," COYENTRY. 

JOHN SHAW & SONS, 

Bicycle Ibollow jfoih flfoanufacturers, 

PRIORY STREET, COVENTRY. 

SEND FOR NEW LIST 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 



Catalogue of Iliffe & Son's 

^ STANDARD • PUBLICATIONS -5* 



BOOKS. 

SAFETY BICYCLES: Their Varieties, Construction and Use. — Copiously £ s. d. 
illustrated. A few copies only left. By Henry Sturmey. (Postage 2d.) Cloth 
gilt, is. gd. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 9 

TRICYCLISTS INDISPENSABLE HANDBOOK.— A complete encyclopaedia upon 
the subject of tricycles and their construction. Copiously illustrated. By 
Henry Sturmey. Fourth edition. 410 pages. 308 illustrations. Only a few 
copies of the last edition left (postage 6d.) ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

THE RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES OF CYCLISTS.— By John A. Williamson, 

Solicitor. Should be possessed by every rider (postage id.) ... ... ...006 

TRICYCLING FOR LADIES. — Hints on the choice and management of tricycles, 
with suggestions on dress, riding and touring. Specially adapted for ladies. By 
Miss F. J. Erskine. Second edition (postage id.) ... ... ... ... 6 

TRAINING FOR AMATEUR ATHLETES, with Special Regard to Cyclists.— 
By the late Dr. H. L. Cortis. Second edition. Coloured illustrations. The 
best handbook on the subject of athletic training (postage 2d.) ... ... ...010 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BICYCLING; or, How to Become a Bicyclist. 

— By Henry Sturmey. Third edition (postage 2d.) ... ... ... ...010 

HEALTH UPON WHEELS; or, Cycling as a Means of Preserving and Re- 
storing the Vital Powers. — By Gordon Stables, M.D., R.N. (postage 2d.) ... o 1 

TWO TRIPS TO THE EMERALD ISLE.— By " Faed." Charmingly written, and 

copiously illustrated by George Moore (postage 2d.) ... ... ... ...010 

ROTA VITiE ; or, The Wheel of Life.— Treating of cycling as a health restorer, and 

the best means of following it out. By Gordon Stables, M.D., R.N. (postage 2d.) 010 

NAUTICUS IN SCOTLAND, by the author of "Nauticus on his Hobby-horse." Being 
an account of a tour over 2,462 miles of Scottish roads. Numerous illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. Cloth, 4s. 6d. ; stiff paper (postage 4d.) ... ... ... ...020 

THE CYCLIST'S GUIDE and Road Directory to the County of Nottingham. 

—By W. H. Heath, C.C. C.T.C. (postage 2d.) ... ... ... ... ...010 

HOW TO WIN AT NAP; or, The Secret Out. — With diagrams. A royal road to 

success in the most popular card game of the day. Just published (postage 2d.) 010 

ABRIDGMENTS OF PATENTS RELATING TO VELOCIPEDES, from the 
earliest times to the end of 1883. — Compiled by Robert Ed. Phillips, M.I.M.E., 
F.S.C. Demy 8vo. Cloth. 310 pages. No inventor, manufacturer, or agent 
should be without it (postage 6d.) ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 11 6 

TREATISE ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TRICYCLE.— By F. Warner 

Jones. With two folding plates of diagrams (postage 2d.) ... ... ...016 

OUTING. — The American magazine of outdoor pursuits. Vols. IV. and V. Superbly 

illustrated. Published at 7s. 6d. Post free. ... ... ... ... each 040 

CYCLEDOM : The Christinas Number of The Cyclist for 1886 and Year Book for 1887 

(postage 4$d.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...010 

PERIODICALS. 

THE CYCLIST and Bicycling and Tricycling Trades' Review. — Edited by 

Henry Sturmey and C. W. Nairn. Every Wednesday ... ... ...001 

BICYCLING NEWS and the Tricycling Gazette.— Edited by G. Lacy Hillier. 

Every Saturday ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...001 

BOUND VOLUMES. 

All volumes of the above periodicals can be supplied, strongly bound, with the exception of vols. 
I. and IV. of The Cyclist, which are out of print. 

BINDING CASES. 

For THE CYCLIST, 2 '-, post free ; BICYCLING NEWS, 2.-, post free; WHEEL WORLD, 

1/6, post free ; OUTING, 16 post free. 



LONDON : ILIFFE & SON, 98, FLEET STREET. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



MAKERS BY 
SPECIAL APPOINTMENT 



THE 




TO H.R.H. 
THE PRINCE OF WALES. 



Coventry flfoacbinists' Co-, x&. 

-MAKERS OF BICYCLES & TRICYCLES EMINENTLY ADAPTED FOR TOURING - 

THE 

SAFETY. 



Lists & full particulars 
post free on application. 




THE 



U 



MARLB0R0' 
GfcfclB." 



HEAD OFFICES AND WORKS 
CHEYLESMORE, 

COVENTRY, 




BRANCHES AND AGENCIES. 

London: 15 & 16, Holborn Viaduct. Manchester: 9, Victoria Buildings. Birmingham : Swan Buildings. 

Liverpool: 16, Renshaw St. Newcastle-on-Tyne : 21. Northumberland St. Edinburgh: U. P. College Buildings'' 

Glasgow: 93, Mitchell St. Folkestone: 21. Tontine St. Hull: Prospect St. Leeds: 32. Bond St. 

Aberdeen : 4 & 6, School Hill. Brighton 1 68, Preston St. Dublin : 21. Bachelors' Walk. 

Melbourne : 62 & 64, Elisabeth St. 
U.S. America: 239, Columbus Avenue. Boston. Vienna: A. H. Curjel. Frankfort. H. Kli 
St. Petersburg and Moscow. J. Block. Milan: Adolpho Schlegel, jun. Brussels: F. Mignot 

Denmark and South Sweden : A. Branth, Copenhagen. Holland F. A. L. De Gruyter, Amsterdam. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



GOLD MEDAL AWARDED at the Vienna Exhibition, 1886. 



BAYLISS, THOMAS & CO.'S 

NEW MOUNTS for 1557. 




4 o 

and 

22m. 

Wheels. 




Geared 
to 



THE "EUREKA" SAFETY. 



THE "EUREKA." 



THE CHAMPIONSHIP 0F EUROPE 

Was won on a "EUREKA" Tricycle at Berlin, Aug. 16th, 1886. 



THE 



ii 



EUREKA" • TANDEM. 



Convertible. Automatic bicycle steering. Can be steered by either rider. 

Four ball bearings to axle. 



1 1 



THE 
EXCELSIOR" 

No. 3. 

For the Billion. 



Hollow forks, ball bearings to 
front wheel, all sizes, 

£8:0:0. 




THE "YICTOR" 

Light Roadster. 

Specially light and strong. 

Hollow felloes, true tangent 

wheels, laced spokes, laced 

seven times, oval backbone, 

fluted forks, &c. 



Price Lists, with woodcuts, description and testimonials, free per post. 



MANUFACTORY 



EXCELglO^ V/OItfCg, COtfEpfiftflT, Eiig. 



" " VICTORS _ 

Bicycle * XLv icicle » Safety. 



WE MAKE ONLY 



THE HIGHEST GRADE CYCLES 



THERE IS 



NOTHING TOO GOOD 



For us to Use on our Machines. 



OVERMAN WHEEL G 

12>2, Columbus Avenue, Boston, "[S.$A. 



o. 



CATALOGUES FREE. 



THE HOWE MACHINE CO., Ltd. 



MAKERS OF THE 



-^BEgf BieyeLEg *; tipeyeLEg**- 



TRADE MARK. 



GOOD AND STRONG. 



ELEGANT AND LIGHT. 




*/V"X AA 



OF ALL 

APPROVED PATTERNS 

WITH ALL THE 

LATEST IMPROVEMENTS 



THE HOWE MACHINES have gained many Frizes. 

THE HOWE MACHINES have won many Races. 

THE HOWE MACHINES gain unasked-for Testimonials. 

THE HOWE MACHINES can be relied on for 

EXACTNESS IN MECHANISM. 
HIGH QUALITY OF MATERIALS, AND 

GRACE AND STRENGTH OF FORM. 




THE 



a 



WIZARD 



)) 



TANDEM 



MACHINE. 



Is more useful than others, as its simple adjustments allow it to be used for 
people of different height. Price Lists on application. 



♦«* 



London Show Rooms : 48, QUEEN VICTORIA ST., MANSION HOUSE. 



HIGHEST AWARD-THE GOLD MEDAL-INTERNATIONAL INVENTIONS EXHIBITION, 1885. 



HILLMAN, HERBERT-COOPER 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



(LIMITED), 




THE "PREMIER" SAFETY, 



AND 



Bicycles &nd Tricycles of every pattern &nd <£r&d*e. 

All Cycles supplied at 14, Holborn Viaduct, on easy terms ; system of 
purchase by monthly instalments, or on hire with option of purchase. 



Head London Office' 14, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. 

and ShOW ROOmS ) (Near the L.C. and D. Railway Station), 



West End Office and 
Show Rooms 



5, Lisle St., Leicester Sq., W. 

(Top of Leicester Street), 



LONDON. 



"Premier" Works - 



- COVENTRY. 



•••• ^ 3 



MARRIOTT ^COOPER 

65 — §6lb©FFi ^iaduGti — 65 

ARE WORLD-RENOWNED FOR THEIR CELEBRATED 




The numerous accidents caused by the faulty construction and fragile axles of Tandems have 
deterred many from purchasing this class of machine, excepting of Marriott <S> Cooper's Manufacture, 
whose reliable axles inspire confidence, whilst the easy running and splendid finish command the attention 
and admiration of all with any knowledge of cycling. The general opinion is that 

MARRIOTT & COOPERS ARE RENOWNED 

— FOR — 

RELIABLE AXLES & BEARINGS. 




Before purchasing a Bicycle, Safety 

Bicycle, Tricycle or Tandem write 

for List to 

Marriott f ^ooper 

65, HOLBORN VIAOUGT, 




arriot & Cooper's Automatic Tandem. 



LONDON. 

Marriott & Cooper's Improved " Crip per." 



ILIFFE 4 SON. PRINTER!. 98 FLEET *T. LONDON WORKS COVENTRY. 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05493 407 8 



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